!Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes 1842 Photo courtesy of Scott McGregor.

and

Common Name The Bulbed Calypso - The Eastern Fairy-Slipper - In China Bu Dai Lan

Flower Size 1 1/2" [3.75 cm]

Found in Sweden, Finland, the Baltics, Ukraine, Western Russia, central Russia, eastern Russia, western Siberia, eastern Siberia, Mongolia, China, Japan, Korea, Aluetians, Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Br. Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskachuan, Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Labrador, Newfoundland, Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconson, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont and Maine as a dwarf to small sized, cold growing, one leafed terrestrial of wet mossy areas in pine forests, marshes, and swamps with subterranean, ovoid, slender, small pseudobulbs with basal leaf sheaths, carrying a single, apical, ovate to elliptic, acute, dark green above, purple below leaf which blooms in the spring and summer on an erect, single flowered, 3 to 7 5/8" [7 to 19 cm] long, pinkish inflorescence with a pendant, heavy textured, fragrant [vanilla] flower.

There are four varieties, separated mostly by continents, the first and typical one is the Scandanavian, European and North Asian variety, the second is from America, var americana and differs in having a large yellow tuft of hairs on the front margin of the mouth and a weakly spotted front lobe of the lip and is the prettiest of the three types. The third type is var occidentalis from Alaska and nearby provinces and has a duller flower with a white tuft of hairs and an irregularily blotched apical lobe of the lip and the 4th, Calypso bulbosa var. speciosa comes from China and Japan.

Synonyms Calypso americana R.Br. in W.T.Aiton 1813; Calypso borealis Salisb. 1807; Calypso bulbosa f. albiflora P.M.Br. 1995; Calypso bulbosa f. americana (R.Br.) P.M.Br. 1995; Calypso bulbosa f. biflora P.M.Br. 2004 publ. 2005; Calypso bulbosa f. candida Hyl.1945; Calypso bulbosa f. nivea P.M.Br. 1995; Calypso bulbosa f. occidentalis Holz. 1895; Calypso bulbosa f. rosea P.M.Br. 1995; Calypso bulbosa nothovar. kostiukiae Catling 2012; Calypso bulbosa subsp. americana (R.Br.) A.Haines 2010; Calypso bulbosa subsp. occidentalis (Holz.) Calder & R.L.Taylor 1963; Calypso bulbosa var. americana (R.Br.) Luer 1975; Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis (Holz.) Cockerell 1916; Calypso bulbosa var. speciosa (Schltr.) Makino 1926; Calypso occidentalis A. Heller 1898; Calypso speciosa Schltr. 1919; Calypsodium boreale (Sw.) Link 1829; Cymbidium boreale Sw. 1799; *Cypripedium bulbosum L. 1753; Cytherea borealis (Salisb.) Salisb. 1812; Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House 1905; Cytherea occidentalis (A. Heller) A. Heller 1906; Cytherea speciosa (Schltr.) Makino 1929; Limodorum boreale Sw. 1805; Norna borealis (Salisb.) Wahlenb. 1826; Orchidium americanum Steud. 1840; Orchidium arcticum Sw. 1814; Orchidium boreale Sw. 1814

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; AOS Bulletin Vol 29 No 5 1960 drawing as Calapogon? bulbosa; AOS Bulletin Vol 30 No 5 1961 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 33 No 5 1964 photo; Die Orchideen #7 25-28 tafel 8 Rudolph Schlechter 1971 drawing fide; Orchid Digest Vol 46 No 6 1982 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 47 No 4 1983 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 6 1985 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 55 No 7 1986 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 56 No 1 1987 stamp; AOS Bulletin Vol 61 No5/467 1992 photo; Schlechteriana Vol 4 No 4 1993 photo; Manual of Orchids Stewart 1995; Botanica's Orchids Laurel Glen 2001; Rudolf Schlechter Die Orchideen Lieferung 41 2001 photo fide; Orchidaceae of German New Guinea Schlechter 1985; Wild Orchids of Florida Brown 2002; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; The Native Orchids of Florida Luer 1972; Drawings of Florida Orchids Ames 1959; Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family Dressler 1993 drawing/photo fide; Wild Orchids Across North America Keenan 1998; Field Guide to the Orchids of North America Williams & Williams 1983; Manual of Cultivated Orchids Bechtel, Cribb and Laurent 1982; Flora's Orchids Nash & La Croix 2005; An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids Pridgeon 1982; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005; AOS Bulletin Vol 75 No 5 2006 photo; A Field Guide to the Orchids of China Singchi, Zhongjian, Yibo, Xiaohua and Zhanhuo 2009 photo fide; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2009; Flora of China Vol 25 Illustrations Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2010 drawing fide; Orchids of Huanglong Perner, Tang Si-Yuan 2007 photos fide; The Wild Orchids in Yunnan Xu Xiang Ye & Liu 2010 photos fide;

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Calypso bulbosa var. americana (R.Br.) Luer 1975 Photos by Jim Fowler and his P-Base Orchid North American Orchid Website

The eastern Amercia variety of the previous species.

Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis (Holz.) Cockerell 1916 Photo courtesy of Eric Hunt.

The Western version of this variable species ensitu in California.

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 61 No 8 1992 photo

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