!Cephalanthera longifolia K. Fritsch 1888 Photo by Pieter C. Brouwer and his Photo Website

Insitu Plants Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sunColdTo CoolSpring TO EARLY Summer

Common Name The Long-Leafed Cephalanthera - The White Lady - The Sword-Leafed Hellebourne - In China Tou Rui Lan

Flower Size About 3/4" [to 1.95 cm]

A medium sized, cold to cool growing terrestrial from Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sewden, Denmark, Spain, Portugal, France, Balaeric Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Scicily, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Czechloslavakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Yuogoslavia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Ukraine, Western Russia, Central Russia, Kazakastan, Kirgistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Afghanistan, China, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Pakistan, western Himalayas and Bhutan found in deciduous woodlands and scrubby margins of woodlands as well as on sand dunes and open pine woods in calcareous soils at elevations of 2250 to 3100 meters with a densely leaf stem with 2 to 4 basal leaf sheaths that are white tipped green and carrying dark green, linear-lanceolate, plicate, ribbed leaves that blooms in the spring through early summer on an erect, to 24" [to 60 cm] long, racemose, loosely many [10 to 20] flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Cephalanthera acuminata Lindley 1832; Cephalanthera acuminata Wall. ex Lindl. 1840; Cephalanthera conferta (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz 2005; Cephalanthera ensifolia (Murr) L.C.M. Richard 1818; Cephalanthera ensifolia var. acuminata (Wall. ex Lindl.) Tang & F.T.Wang 1951; Cephalanthera ensifolia var. cesari-gonzalezii Rivas Goday & Bellot 1948; Cephalanthera ensifolia var. maravignae (Tineo) Nyman 1882; Cephalanthera grandiflora S.F. Gray 1821; Cephalanthera longifolia f. angustifolia Maire & Weiller 1959; Cephalanthera longifolia f. latifolia (Maire) Maire & Weiller 1959; Cephalanthera longifolia f. longibracteata (Harz) Asch. & Graebn. 1907; Cephalanthera longifolia f. pilosa (Harz) So 1928; Cephalanthera longifolia f. pumila Asch. & Graebn. 1907; Cephalanthera longifolia subsp. conferta B.Baumann & H.Baumann 2005; Cephalanthera longifolia var. gibbosa Boiss. 1882; Cephalanthera longifolia var. latifolia (Maire) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez 1987; Cephalanthera longifolia var. pilosa Harz in J.Sturm 1896; Cephalanthera longifolia var. rosea Perko 2002; Cephalanthera mairei Schltr. 1919; Cephalanthera maravignae Tineo 1843; Cephalanthera pallens [Sw.] L.C.M. Richard 1818; Epipactis pallida Sw. 1800 ; Cephalanthera thomsonii Rchb.f. 1876; Cephalanthera xiphophylla {L.F.}Rchb. 1851; Cephalanthera xiphophyllum var. latifolia Maire 1914; Cymbidium xilophyllum Sw. 1799; Cymbidium xiphiifolium Lindl.1822; Cymbidium xiphophyllum (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw.1799; Epipactis ensifolia F.W.Schmidt 1795; Epipactis grandiflora (L.) Sm. 1795; Epipactis grandifolia All. 1785; Epipactis longifolia All. 1785; Epipactis longifolia var. gibbosa (Boiss.) W.Zimm. 1912; Epipactis longifolia var. longibracteata Harz 1896; Epipactis longifolia var. pilosa Harz 1896; Epipactis xiphophylla (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw. 1805 ; Helleborine longifolia (Scop.) Moench 1842; Helleborine longifolia (All.) So 1929; Limodorum acuminatum (Wall. ex Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Limodorum grandiflorum (L.) Kuntze 1891; Limodorum longifolium (L.) Kuntze 1891; Serapias ensifolia J.S. Murray 1774; Serapias grandiflora L. 1767; Serapias grandiflora var. ensifolia L.f. 1782; *Serapias helleborine var. longifolia L. 1753; Serapias longifolia [L.] Scop. 1772; Serapias nivea Vill. 1787; Serapias pallida Wahlenb. 1814; Serapias xiphophyllum L.f. 1762

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; The Orchids of Sikkim-Himalaya Part 1 King & Pantling 1898 as C ensifolia drawing ok; The Orchids of North-Western Himalaya Vol IX Part II Duthie 1906 as C ensifolia; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as C grandiflora; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as C xiphophyllum; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as C ensifolia drawing ok; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as C pallens drawing ok; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as Cephalanthera xiphophylla; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as C pallens; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 6 1985 photo; Wild Orchids Of Britain Summerhayes 1951; AOS Bulletin Vol 49 No 4 1980 photo; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids Pridgeon 1992; Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family Dressler 1993 drawing ok; Manual of Orchids Stewart 1995; AOS Bulletin Vol 68 No 4 1999 photo; Native Orchids of China in Colour Singchi, Zhanhuo and Yibo 1999 photo fide; Orchids of Bhutan Pearce & Cribb 2002; Botanica's Orchids Laurel Glen 2003; Flora's Orchids Nash & La Croix 2005; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle east Delforge 2005; Native Orchids of Shaanxi Shaanxi Science & Technology Press 2007 photo fide; The Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007 drawing hmm; Native Orchids From Gaoligongshan Maountains, China Xiaohua, Xiaodong and Xiaochun 2009 photo; A Field Guide to the Orchids of China Singchi, Zhongjian, Yibo, Xiaohua and Zhanhuo 2009 photo ok; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2009; Flora of China Vol 25 Illustrations Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2010 drawing fide; Orchids of Huanglong Perner, Tang Si-Yuan 2007 photos fide; The Wild Orchids in Yunnan Xu Xiang Ye & Liu 2010 photos fide;

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