Dactylorhiza cruenta (O.F. Müller) Soó 1962 Photo courtesy of T.H. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

LATE to EARLY

D incarnata Group

Common Name The Blood-Red Dactylorhiza

Flower Size 1/2" [1.25 cm]

This small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid is found in Norway, Sweden, Finland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Poland and Russia in full sun on very calcareous, wet substrates in marshes, fens with sphagnum, boggy coniferous forests, damp meadows and stream banks at elevations of 1100 to 2500 meters with a robust stem carrying 3 to 5, spotted, more or less intensely brown-purple on both sides, spreading to near erect, often curved downwards, oval-lanceolate leaves uppermost 1 to 2, bract-like and blooms in the late spring and early summer on a terminal, erect, racemose, 6 to 14" [15 to 35 cm] long, cylindrical inflorescence with leaf-like bracts and many flowers.

Synonyms Dactylorchis cruenta (O.F. Müll.) Verm. 1947; Dactylorchis incarnata var. cruenta (O.F. Müll.) Verm. 1947; Dactylorchis incarnata var. haematodes (Rchb.) Verm. 1949; Dactylorhiza cruenta f. ochrantha Wief. in J.Landwehr 1977; Dactylorhiza haematodes (Rchb.) G.H.Loos 2010; Dactylorhiza incarnata f. haematodes (Rchb.) P.Delforge 2006; Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta (O.F. Müller) P.D. Sell 1967; Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. haematodes (Rchb.) Soó 1962 ; Dactylorhiza incarnata var. cruenta (O.F. Müll.) Hyl. ?; Dactylorhiza incarnata var. hyphaematodes (Neuman) Løjtnant 1978; *Orchis cruenta O.F. Müller 1782; Orchis cruentiformis Neuman 1909; Orchis durandii Boissier & Reuter 1852; Orchis haematodes Rchb. 1830; Orchis incarnata lusus cruenta (O.F.Müll.) Rchb.f. 1851; Orchis incarnata lusus haematodes (Rchb.) Soó 1928; Orchis incarnata subsp. cruenta (O.F.Müll.) Nyman 1882; Orchis incarnata var. haematodes (Rchb.) M.Schulze 1907; Orchis incarnata var. hyphaematodes Neuman 1909; Orchis matodes Rchb.f. 1851

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 52 No 5 1983 photo; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005

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