Epidendrum bisulcatum Ames 1923 GROUP Arbuscula SUBGROUP Incomptum
Photo by Mulder & Mulder-Roelfsema
Photo by © Daniel Matamoros
TYPE Drawing by © Ames
Drawing by © Hágsater and The AMO Herbario Website
Photo by © Loco Joe's Website
Common Name The Twice Grooved Epidendrum [a misnomer has only one]
Flower Size 1.2" [3 cm]
Found in Costa Rica and Panama at elevations of 1500 to 2500 meters as a medium sized, cool to cold growing epiphyte with simple, cane-like, terete, thin, straight stems carrying 2 to 4, towards the apex, alternate, subcoriaceous, oblong, entire margin, acute, conduplicate into the base leaves that blooms in the fall through winter on a terminal, occuring only once, racemose, arching, thin, ancipitose inflorescence with a bract towards the middle that is similar to the shorter than the ovary, triangular, acuminte floral bracts and carrying 6 to 9 successively opening, non-resupinate, nocturnally fragrant flowers with olive green tepals and a lighter lip with a purple cast over it.
CAUTION The drawing is the type so it must be correct but the two flower photos are quite different and I cannot be sure of which is correct if not both or neither. The second photo is the same as the drawing in every respect other than the single flower with a long pedicel and the lip apex which appears to be bilobed, and the third photo, which is correct in how the flowers are held but the photo just is not good enough to inspect the lip, The first photo seems the most correct except in the apparently flat peduncle enveloped by a very long peduncular bract?
This species is known for having 2 apical leaves on the stem, green flowers with a slight tint of bronze on the sub-orbiuclar lip that is slightly emarginate and bisulcate in front of the calli.
" Epidendrum bisulcatum belongs to the GROUP Arbuscula SUBGROUP Incomptum which is characterized by the successive lateral growths produced from the middle of the previous growth, few leaves aggregate towards the apex of the stems, a short apical inflorescence with fleshy greenish to violet-green flowers with short ovaries, the lip entire to 3- lobed. The species is recognized by the short, thin stems with 2 to 4 oblong, acute leaves, successively few, 6 to 9 flowered inflorescence with olive-green flowers, and the suborbicular lip, .44 to .5" [11 to 12.5 mm wide, with an erose margin. Epidendrum brenesii Schltr. has stems .08 to .2" [2 to 5 mm] thick, a inflorescence with 8 to 12 violet green or yellowish green flowers, a reniform lip, .48 to .76" [12 to 19 mm] wide, with the apex somewhat 4-lobed. Epidendrum cerinum Schltr. has larger, olive green or lavender to black-colored flowers, the sepals .68 to .96" [17 to 24 mm] long a widely ovate lip with a fimbriate margin and the lip obliquely united to the column.
References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; The Genus Epidendrum Ames 1936; The Orchids of Panama L.O. Williams & P Allen 1946 drawing fide; Ceiba Vol 5 No 1 L O Williams 1956; Orchids Travel By Air A Pictoral Safari Mulder, Mulder-Roelfsema and Schuiteman 1990 photo fide; Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama Dressler 1993; Manual de las Plantas de Costa Rica Vol 3 Hammel, Grayum, Herrera and Zamora 2003; Icones Orchidacearum 8 Plate 812 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 drawing ok; Icones Orchidacearum 8 Plate 814 Hagsater and Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 843 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 844 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 850 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1109 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008; Orchids of Costa Rica Vol 3 Morales 2009 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum Part 13 Plate 1386 Hagsater 2010 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 17(2) Plate 1760 Hagsater & Jimenez 2020 see recognition section;