Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffmann ex Bernhardi) Besser 1826 Photo by Pieter C. Brouwer and his Photo Website

Flower Closeup Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Another Flower Closeup

Plant Photos by Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz and their Website

to LATE to

Common Name The Black-Red Epipactis - The Broad-Leaved Helleborine

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

This large sized, terrestrial species is a cool to cold growing orchid that is found in Ireland, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Spain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czeckloslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Ukraine, Western Russia, Central Russia and western Siberia with glabrous or pubescent stems carrying 3 to 10, ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves that become more bract-like towards the apex and blooms on a terminal, pubescent, 2 3/4 to 10" [7 to 25 cm] long, densely many flowered inflorescence that arises in the late spring and summer and has vanilla scented flowers.

Synonyms Amesia atropurpurea (Raf.) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. 1913; Amesia rubiginosa (Crantz) Mousley 1926; Epipactis atropurpurea Raf. 1810; Epipactis atropurpurea f. pallens Beckh. 1893; Epipactis atropurpurea subvar. virescens Rouy in G.Rouy & J.Foucaud 1912; Epipactis atropurpurea var. leviconica Engenst. 1912; Epipactis atropurpurea var. longibracteata Bordz. 1950; Epipactis atrorubens f. angustifolia Snarskis 1963; Epipactis atrorubens f. latifolia (Tocl) So 1969; Epipactis atrorubens f. longibracteata (Bordz.) So 1969; Epipactis atrorubens f. majoriflora (Bordz.) So 1969; Epipactis atrorubens f. orbicularis (Zapal.) So 1969; Epipactis atrorubens f. pallens (Beckh.) Hyl. 1945; Epipactis atrorubens f. sirneensis Neirynck 1995; Epipactis atrorubens subsp. borbasii So 1968; Epipactis atrorubens subsp. danubialis (Robatsch & Rydlo) Ciocrlan & R.Rsler 2004;Epipactis atrorubens subsp. spiridonovii (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis atrorubens subsp. subclausa (Robatsch) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis atrorubens subsp. triploidea Gelbrecht & Hamel 1987; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. albiflora E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. borbasii (So) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. lutescens (Coss. & Germ.) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. radnensis (So) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. suboppositifolia (G.Froel. ex So) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens subvar. viridiflora (Sanio) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis atrorubens var. atrata A.Waldner & Webernd. 2005; Epipactis atrorubens var. dilatata (Graber) Verm. 1949; Epipactis atrorubens var. macedonica Kreutz, Tsiftsis & Antonop. 2009; Epipactis atrorubens var. media (Fr.) Nyman 1882; Epipactis atrorubens var. stenopetala W.Zimm. 1912; Epipactis atrorubens var. triploidea (Gelbr. & G.Hamel) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis atrorubens var. viridiflora (Hoffm.) Nyman 1882; Epipactis cruenta Bertero ex Vignolo 1932; Epipactis danubialis Robatsch & Rydlo 1989; Epipactis helleborine subsp. viridans (Crantz) O.Schwarz 1949 Epipactis helleborine var. rubiginosa Crantz 1769; Epipactis latifolia Less. 1834; Epipactis latifolia f. viridans (Crantz) Dichtl. 1883; Epipactis latifolia subvar. lutescens Coss. & Germ. 1845; Epipactis latifolia var. atrorubens (Hoffm.) Irmisch 1842; Epipactis latifolia var. minor Neilr. 1859; Epipactis latifolia var. rubiginosa (Crantz) Gaudin 1829; Epipactis latifolia var. viridans (Crantz) Asch. 1864; Epipactis macropodia Peterm. 1841; Epipactis media Fr., Novit 1839; Epipactis merediorum Batouek 2009; Epipactis microphylla Sieber ex Nyman 1882; Epipactis persica subsp. danubialis (Robatsch & Rydlo) Kreutz 2007; Epipactis rubiginosa (Crantz) W.D.J. Koch; Epipactis rubiginosa f. latifolia Tocl 1900; Epipactis rubiginosa lusus viridiflora Sanio 1881; Epipactis rubiginosa var. orbicularis Zapal. 1906; Epipactis spiridonovii Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1995; Epipactis subclausa Robatsch 1988; Epipactis thessala B.Baumann & H.Baumann 1988; Helleborine atropurpurea (Rafinesque) Schinz & Thellung 1908; Helleborine atrorubens (G. Hoffm.) Druce 1907; Helleborine media (Fr.) Druce 1905; Helleborine rubiginosa (Crantz) Samp 1913; Limodorum rubiginosum (Crantz) Kuntze 1891 ; *Serapias atrorubens G. Hoffm. 1791; Serapias latifolia O.F.Mll. 1780; Serapias latifolia Hoffm. 1804; Serapias latifolia (L.) Huds. var atrorubens Hoffmann; Serapias sylvestris Murray ex Steud. 1821

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as E rubignosa; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as E latifolia drawing fide; Die Orchideen #5 17-20 tafel 6 Rudolph Schlechter 1971 drawing ok; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 5 1985 photo; Schlechteriana Vol 4 No 4 1993; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle east Delforge 2005

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