Epipactis gigantea Douglas ex Hook. 1839 SECTION Megapactis

Plant in California

Photos by Nile and Lois Dusdieker

Another Flower

Photo by Scott McGregor

Another Flower

Inflorescence in situ Oregon

Photos by Patricia Harding

Flower in Arizona

Photo by John Alcock

Part sunCold to CoolSpring toSummer

Common Name Giant Helleborine

Flower Size to about 2" [to 5 cm]

Found in the US, Canada and Mexico as a medium to large sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial that is found at altitudes of 150 to 500 meters along rivers and streams, seepage banks and springs with short rhizomes and a tall stem carrying 4 to 12, ovate-lanceolate, acute leaves that blooms in the spring and summer on a terminal, to 3'4" [1 meter] long, laxly few to several flowered raceme with longlasting flowers and that has leafy, lanceolate bracts and a fuzzy rachis.

Used as a treatment for insanity and very severe cases of sickness by the west coast indians of America

Synonyms Amesia gigantea (Douglas ex Hook.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. 1913; Arthrochilium giganteum (Douglas ex Hook.) Szlach. 2003; Cephalanthera kokanica Regel ex Nevski 1935; Epipactis americana Lindl. 1840; Epipactis gigantea f. rubrifolia P.M.Br. 1995; Epipactis pringlei Gand. 1919 publ. 1920; Helleborine gigantea [Doug ex Hook.] Druce 1909; Limodorum giganteum [Doug. ex Hkr.]Kuntze 1891 Peramium giganteum [Doug. ex Hkr.] Coulter 1894; Serapias gigantea [Doug. ex Hkr.] A.A.Eaton 1908

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; The Orchids of North-Western Himalaya Vol IX Part II Duthie 1906; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; AOS Bulletin Vol 28 No 4 1959; AOS Bulletin Vol 30 No 5 1961 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 32 No 5 1962 photo fide; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 5 257- 320 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1974 photo ok; The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada Luer 1975 drawing/photos fide; Indian Orchids, Guide to Identification and Culture Pradhan 1976; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 6 1978 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 51 No 10 1982 photo fide; Orchid Digest 51 Vol 4 1987 photo fide; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; AOS Bulletin Vol 61 No 5/466 1992 photo fide; The Manual Of Cultivated Orchid Species Bechtel, Cribb & Launert 1992 photo fide; Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family Dressler 1993 drawing/photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 63 No 3 1994 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 67 No 9 1998 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 63 #3 1999 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 73 No 7 2004 photo fide; Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007 drawing fide; Orchid Digest Vol 74 #2 2010 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 80 #4 2011 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 77 #3 2013 photo fide; LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 750. Jeewan Singh Jalal & J. Jayanthi 2015; Orchid Digest Vol 80 #2 2016 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 86 #2 2017 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 86 #2 2017 photo good; Orchid Digest Vol 82 #1 2018 as E gigantea f rubrifolia photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 88 # 1 2019 drawing fide;