!Epipactis helleborine (Linne) Crantz 1769 SECTION Epipactis Photo courtesy of P.Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Ensitu Russian Orchid - Inflorescence with visitor

Ensitu Russian Plant and Flowers Photos courtesy of Yuri Mitrofanov

Russian Ensitu Plant in Moscow Area - Different color form

Plant and Flower

Another Aspect Emphasizing Lip

Flowers and Seed Pods

Plant and Inflorescence 100 miles south of Moscow

Inflorescence Detail with Bracts Photos courtesy of Andrew Krukov

to LATE to

Common Name Broad Leafed Helleborine - In China Huo Shao Lan

Flower Size to 1" [to 2.5 cm]

Found in Ireland, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, France, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Hungary, Yugosalvia, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Russia, Cyprus, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, China, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Pakistan, western Himalayas and Bhutan as well as an alien invasive species in northeastern Canada and USA in deciduous and coniferous woodlands, ravines, thickets and on the banks of streams at elevations of sealevel to 2500 meters as a large sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial with an erect stem carrying 5 to 9 large, ovate to elliptic, spirally arranged, acuminate leaves that blooms on a terminal, secund, laxly many [15 to 50] flowered inflorescence arising in the late spring and summer.

Early colonists of the United States brought Epipactis latifolia [helleborine] with them from Europe as a cure for the gout.

Synonyms Amesia consimilis (D.Don) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. 1913; Amesia discolor (Kraenzl.) Hu 1925; Amesia latifolia (L.) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. 1913; Amesia latifolia f. monotropoides Mousley 1927; Amesia orbicularis (K.Richt.) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. 1913; Amesia pycnostachys (K.Koch) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. 1913; Amesia squamellosa (Schltr.) Hu 1925; Amesia tangutica (Schltr.) Hu 1925; Amesia yunnanensis (Schltr.) Hu 1925; Calliphyllon latifolium (L.) Bubani 1901; Cymbidium latifolium Sw. 1799; Epipactis atroviridis Linton 1903; Epipactis bithynica Robatsch 1991; Epipactis cardina Benito & C.E.Hermos. 1998; Epipactis consimilis D.Don 1825; Epipactis dalhousiae Wight 1851; Epipactis degenii Szentp. & Mˇnus 1999; Epipactis densifolia W.Hahn, Passin & R.Wegener 2003; Epipactis discolor Kraenzl. 1921; Epipactis duriensis Bernardos, D.Tyteca, Revuelta & Amich 2004; Epipactis gutta-sanguinis Arv.-Touv. 1872; Epipactis halacsyi subsp. degenii (Szentp. & Mˇnus) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis helleborine f. alba (Webster) B.Boivin 1967; Epipactis helleborine f. albifolia M.R.Lowe 1990; Epipactis helleborine f. brevibracteata (Zapal.) Bordz. 1950; Epipactis helleborine f. dentata (Zapal.) Soˇ 1969; Epipactis helleborine f. dilatata (Asch. & Graebn.) Soˇ 1969; Epipactis helleborine f. luteola P.M.Br. 1996; Epipactis helleborine f. macrophylla Snarskis 1963; Epipactis helleborine f. minor (R.Engel) P.Delforge 2006; Epipactis helleborine f. monotropoides (Mousley) Scoggan 1978; Epipactis helleborine f. montana (Zapal.) Bordz. 1950; Epipactis helleborine f. obtusa (Zapal.) Soˇ 1969; Epipactis helleborine f. parviflora (Zapal.) Bordz. 1950; Epipactis helleborine f. przemysliensis (Zapal.) Verm. 1958; Epipactis helleborine f. remota (Zapal.) Bordz. 1950; Epipactis helleborine f. variegata (Webster) B.Boivin 1967; Epipactis helleborine lusus interrupta (Beck) Verm. 1958; Epipactis helleborine subsp. bithynica (Robatsch) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis helleborine subsp. degenii (Szentp. & Mˇnus) Kreutz 2007; Epipactis helleborine subsp. densifolia (W.Hahn, Passin & R.Wegener) Kreutz 2005; Epipactis helleborine subsp. latifolia (L.) Syme 1869; Epipactis helleborine subsp. latina W.Rossi & E.Klein 1987; Epipactis helleborine subsp. levantina Kreutz, Ëvßri & Shifman 2010 publ. 2011; Epipactis helleborine subsp. minor (K.Engel) K.Engel 1992; Epipactis helleborine subsp. molochina (P.Delforge) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis helleborine subsp. moratoria Riech. & Zirnsack 2008; Epipactis helleborine subsp. neerlandica (Verm.) Buttler 1986; Epipactis helleborine subsp. ohwii (Fukuy.) H.J.Su 2000; Epipactis helleborine subsp. orbicularis (K.Richt.) E.Klein 1997; Epipactis helleborine subsp. renzii (Robatsch) L°jtnant 1996; Epipactis helleborine subsp. schubertiorum (Bartolo, Pulv. & Robatsch) Kruetz 2004; Epipactis helleborine subsp. transcaucasica A.P.Khokhr. 1991; Epipactis helleborine subsp. viridis Soˇ 1969; Epipactis helleborine subsp. zirnsackiana (Riech.) Riech. 2010 publ. 2011; Epipactis helleborine var. castanearum GÚvaudan, Nicole & Anglade 2011; Epipactis helleborine var. chlorantha Verm. 1949; Epipactis helleborine var. densiflora Verm. 1949; Epipactis helleborine var. diversifolia Verm. 1949; Epipactis helleborine var. herbacea (Lindl.) S.N.Mitra 1973; Epipactis helleborine var. interrupta Beck 1890; Epipactis helleborine var. intrusa (Lindl.) S.N.Mitra 1973; Epipactis helleborine var. lancifolia (Zapal.) Bordz. 1950; Epipactis helleborine var. latifolia (L.) A.Blytt 1903; Epipactis helleborine var. laxiflora Verm. 1949; Epipactis helleborine var. microphylla (Ehrh.) Rchb.f. 1851; Epipactis helleborine var. minor K.Engel 1984; Epipactis helleborine var. moratoria (Riech. & Zirnsack) P.Delforge 2011; Epipactis helleborine var. neerlandica Verm. 1949; ; Epipactis helleborine var. orbicularis Soˇ 1969; Epipactis helleborine var. pallens Gaudin 1829; Epipactis helleborine var. phoenicea Verm. 1949; Epipactis helleborine var. platyphylla Irmisch 1842; Epipactis helleborine var. renzii (Robatsch) J.Claess. Kleynen & Wielinga 1998; Epipactis helleborine var. tangutica (Schltr.) S.C.Chen & G.H.Zhu 2003; Epipactis helleborine var. thomsonii (Hook.f.) S.N.Mitra 1973; Epipactis helleborine var. viridans Crantz 1769; Epipactis helleborine var. viridens A.Gray 1879; Epipactis helleborine var. youngiana (A.J.Richards & A.F.Porter) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis herbacea Lindl. 1839; Epipactis intrusa Lindl. 1857; Epipactis kezlinekii BatouÜek 2009; Epipactis latifolia [L.] Allioni 1785; Epipactis latifolia f. alba Webster 1898; Epipactis latifolia f. albiflora E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis latifolia f. pseudovarians Engenst. 1912; Epipactis latifolia f. variegata Webster 1898; Epipactis latifolia subsp. helleborine (L.) Rivas Goday & Borja 1961; Epipactis latifolia subsp. orbicularis (K.Richt.) K.Richt. 1890; Epipactis latifolia subsp. ovalis (Bab.) Nyman 1882; Epipactis latifolia var. acutiloba Huter 1904; Epipactis latifolia var. condensata E.G.Camus & A.Camus 1912; Epipactis latifolia var. decipiens E.G.Camus 1908; Epipactis latifolia var. dentata (Zapal.) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis latifolia var. dilatata Asch. & Graebn. 1907; Epipactis latifolia var. interrupta (Beck) M.Schulze 1894; Epipactis latifolia var. intrusa (Lindl.) Hook.f. 1890; Epipactis latifolia var. major Neilr. 1890; Epipactis latifolia var. orbicularis (K.Richt.) E.G.Camus 1929; Epipactis latifolia var. platyphylla Irmisch 1842; Epipactis latifolia var. pycnostachys K.Koch 1846; Epipactis latifolia var. pygmaea W.Zimm. 1912; Epipactis latifolia var. robusta Podp. 1922; Epipactis latifolia var. thomsonii Hook.f. 1890; Epipactis latifolia var. vulgaris Coss. & Germ. 1845; Epipactis latina (W.Rossi & E.Klein) B.Baumann & H.Baumann 1988; Epipactis leutei Robatsch 1989; Epipactis ligulata Hand.-Mazz. 1936; Epipactis longibracteata (Schweinf.) S.Y.Hu 1972; Epipactis macrostachya Lindl. 1840; Epipactis magnibracteata C.Schweinf. 1937; Epipactis micrantha E.Peter 1937; Epipactis molochina P.Delforge 2004; Epipactis monticola Schltr. 1924; Epipactis neerlandica (Verm.) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1991; Epipactis neerlandica var. renzii (Robatsch) P.Delforge 2009; Epipactis nephrocordia Schltr. 1924; Epipactis orbicularis K.Richt. 1887; Epipactis ohwii Fukuy. 1934; Epipactis ovalis Bab. in J.E.Sm. 1843; Epipactis pycnostachys K.Koch 1849; Epipactis renzii Robatsch 1988; Epipactis schubertiorum Bartolo, Pulv. & Robatsch 1996 publ. 1997; Epipactis squamellosa Schltr. 1919; Epipactis tangutica Schltr. 1919; Epipactis tenii Schltr. 1921; Epipactis tremolsii subsp. densifolia (W.Hahn, Passin & R.Wegener) Kreutz 2004; Epipactis tremolsii subsp. latina (W.Rossi & E.Klein) S.Hertel & Riech. 2003; Epipactis uliginosa Vest 1825 ; Epipactis viridans [Crantz] Beck 1890; Epipactis viridans f. brevifolia (Irmisch) Zapal.1906; Epipactis viridans f. humilis Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans f. interrupta (Beck) Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans f. minor Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans f. parviflora Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans f. remota Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. brevibracteata Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. dentata Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. lancifolia Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. lithuanica Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. montana Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. obtusa Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. przemysliensis Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. subrotundifolia Zapal. 1906; Epipactis viridans var. viridiflora (Hoffm.) Beck 1890; Epipactis viridiflora Rupr. 1847; Epipactis voethii Robatsch 1993; Epipactis youngiana A.J.Richards & A.F.Porter 1982; Epipactis yunnanensis Schltr. 1919; Epipactis zirnsackiana Riech. 2010; Helleborine atroviridis (Linton) F.Hanb. 1908; Helleborine consimilis (D.Don) Druce 1909; Helleborine helleborine (L.) Druce 1925; Helleborine latifolia (All.) Druce 1907; Helleborine macrostachya (Lindl.) Soˇ 1929; Helleborine nephrocardia (Schltr.) Soˇ 1929; Helleborine orbicularis (K.Richt.) Druce 1908; Helleborine ovalis (Bab.) Druce 1905; Helleborine pycnostachys (K.Koch) Druce 1909; Helleborine squamellosa (Schltr.) Soˇ 1929; Helleborine tangutica (Schltr.) Soˇ 1929; Helleborine varians Soˇ 1928; Helleborine viridans (Crantz) Samp. 1913; Helleborine yunnanensis (Schltr.) Soˇ 1929; Limodorum latifolium (L.) Kuntze 1891; Serapias consimilis (D.Don) A.A.Eaton 1908; *Serapias helleborine L. 1753; Serapias helleborine L. var. latifolia Linne 1753; Serapias latifolia [Linne] Huds. 1762; Serapias memoralis Salisb. 1796

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; The Orchids of Sikkim-Himalaya Part 1 King & Pantling 1898 as Epipactis latifolia drawing fide; The Orchids of North-Western Himalaya Vol IX Part II Duthie 1906 as E latifolia; The Orchids of North-Western Himalaya Vol IX Part II Duthie 1906 as E consimilis; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as E latifolia; AOS Bulletin Vol 28 No 4 1959 as E latifolia; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 6 1978 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 48 No 8 1979 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 48 No 11 1979 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 51 No 1 1982 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 5 1985 photo; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; Schlechteriana Vol 4 No 4 1993; Native Orchids of China in Colour Singchi, Zhanhuo and Yibo 1999 photo fide; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle east Delforge 2005; Native Orchids of Shaanxi Shaanxi Science & Technology Press 2007 photo fide; Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007; Orchids of Huanglong Perner, Tang Si-Yuan 2007 as E tangutica photos fide; Native Orchids From Gaoligongshan Mountains, China Xiaohua, Xiaodong and Xiaochun 2009 photo fide; A Field Guide to the Orchids of China Singchi, Zhongjian, Yibo, Xiaohua and Zhanhuo 2009 photo fide; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2009; Flora of China Vol 25 Illustrations Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2010 drawing fide; The Wild Orchids in Yunnan Xu Xiang Ye & Liu 2010 photos ok

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------