Epidendrum umbelliferum J.F. Gmel. 1791 GROUP Difforme

Photo by Julio Larramendi

Plant and Inflorescence

Photo by I. Fragoso


Drawing by © R Jimenez M and Icones Orchidacearum 18(1) plate 1845 2020


Common Name The Umbel-Flowered Epidendrum

Flower Size

Found in Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, St Kitts & Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Grenada in rain and cloud forests at elevations of 300 to 1500 meters as a miniature to medium sized, hot to cool growing epiphyte with cane-like, sinuous, laterally compressed, without being ancipitose, flexuous stems carrying 4 to 11, equally distributed along the stem; somewhat laterally compressed, smooth sheaths; blade lanceolate to widely elliptic, apex retuse, unornamented, succulent, dorsally carinate, green, margin entire leaves that blooms in the spring through early fall on a terminal, without a spathe, occuring only once, arising on a mature growth, sessile, subumbellate, simultaneously 4 to 6 flowered inflorescence with resupinate flowers

This species is part of the GROUP Difforme characterized by the caespitose, sympodial plants, fleshy, pale green to glaucous leaves, apical inflorescence, sessile, rarely with a short peduncle, one-flowered to many-flowered, and then corymbose, without spathaceous bracts, fleshy, green to yellowish-green rarely white flowers. The species can by recognized by its vigorous plants, wide, sinuous laterally compressed stems, without being ancipitose, succulent leaves, 4 to 6 flowers, 3-lobed lip, bilobed mid-lobe of the lip with semi-orbicular lobes. Epidendrum difforme Jacq., has less vigorous plants with strongly flattened, straight, ancipitose stems, coriaceous leaves, and a sub-quadrate, revolute mid-lobe of the lip, and is restricted to the islands of Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Sta. Lucia, St. Vincent and Trinidad and Tobago, and is found only in the Lesser Antilles. Epidendrum panegyricum Hágsater & L.Sánchez has ancipitose stems, 2 to 3 simultaneous, pale green flowers, a trapezoid, 3-lobed lip with elliptic lateral lobes and a very small mid-lobe; it is endemic to Dominica. Other species of the GROUP Difforme in the Antilles have terete or only slightly compressed stems, thought the flowers may be similar; the section of the stem is a consistent important distinguishing character.

Synonyms Epidendrum caribiorum Ackerman & Acev.-Rodr. 2012; Epidendrum umbellatum Sw. 1788;

ReferencesW3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as E umbellatum; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 9 513 - 576 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977 as E umbellatum; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 133 Hagsater 1993 as E umbellatum see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 167 Hagsater 1993 see recognition section as E umbellatum; Iconografia de Orquideas Cubanas Perez & Bocourt 1997 drawing fide; Icones Orchidacearum 3 plate 365 Hagsater & Salazar 1999 as E panegyricum drawing ok; Orchidaceae Antillanae Nir 2000 as E umbellatum; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 401 Hagsater 2001 as E umbellatum see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 429 Hagsater 2001 as E umbellatum see recognition section; The Orchids of Cuba Llamacho & Larramendi 2005 as E umbellatum photo fide; Vanishing Beauty; Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 1 Pupulin 2005 as Epidendrum chlorocoymbos; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 827 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1136 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 as Epidendrum chlorocoymbos see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1396 Hasater & Salazar 2010 as E umbellatum drawing 0k; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1393 Hagsater & Salazar 2010 as E pseudodifforme see recognition section; Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles Ackerman 2014 as E caribiorum Orquideas, Tesoro de Colombia Vol 2 Ortiz & Uribe 2017; Icones Orchidacearum 18(1) plate 1844 Hagsater & Santiago 2020 drawing/photo ;