Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer 1982 SUBGENUS Myoxanthus SECTION Myoxanthus Luer 1992

Photo by Jean Marc Palandre and his Flickr Orchid Photo Website

Common Name The Covered with Hard Sharp Points Myoxanthus [refers to the pubescence of the sheaths and sepals]

Flower Size .4" [1 cm]

Found in Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador in cloud forests at elevations of 2000 to 2900 meters as a cold growing epiphyte with erect, stout, purplish ramicauls enveloped by 4 to 8, tubular, hispidulous sheaths and carrying a single, apical, erect, thickly coriaceous, dark green, suffused with purple, narrowly ovate, acute, cuneate below into the petiolate base leaf that blooms in the winter on a congested fascile of several, .2 to .4" [.5 to 1 cm] long, single, simultaneous flowered inflorescence arising often through a dense mass of old nodes at the apex of the ramicaul with infundibular, minutely spiculate enveloping the stout, minutely pubescent pedicel.

CAUTION !!! Karremans & Rojas-Alvarado 2020 have found that the type specimen of M exasperatus has been misinterpreted in literature and actually represents what has been known as M speciosa. All orchids that have many white flowers called M exasperatus have been moved to M parahybunensis.

Synonyms Humboldtia exasperata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Humboltia exasperata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Myoxanthus speciosus (Luer) Luer 1982; Pleurothallis exasperata Lindl. 1859; *Pleurothallis speciosa Luer 1977; Specklinia peduncularis (Kuntze) F.Barros 1983 publ. 1984

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Flora of Venezuela Vol XV Part 2 Foldats 1970 as Pleuorthallis exasperata drawing fide; Las Orquedias de El Salvador Vol 3 Hamer 1981 drawing not = M parahybunensis; Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol IX Systematics of Myoxanthus 1992 = M parahybunensis; Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol IX Luer 1992 drawing fide; Orchids of Venezuela [An illustrated field guide] Vol. 2 Ramiro and Carnevali 2000 drawing = M parahybunenesis; Native Ecuadorian Orchids Vol 3 Dodson 2002 drawing/photo = M parahybunensis; Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica Vol 3 Hammel, Grayum, Herrera and Zamora 2003; Orquideas Nativas del Tachira Cesar Fernandez 2003 photo as M parahybunenesis; Orquideas Da Chapada Diamantina Brito & Cribb 2005 = M parahybunensis; Orchid Species of Peru Zelenko Bermudez 2009 photo = M parahybunensis; Orchid Genera and Species in Guatemala Archila, Szlachchetko, Chiron, Lipinska, Mystkowska and Bertolini 2018; Pleurothallids Neotropical Jewels Vol 1 Karremans & Viera 2020 photo fide; Vanishing Beauty, Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 2 Lacaena to Pteroglossa Pupulin 2020 photo not = M parahybunensis