Ophrys fuciflora (F.W. Schmidt) Moench 1842 Photo by Pieter C. Brouwer and his Photo Website

O episcopalis Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

FragrancePart sun Cold LATESpring

Common Name The Drone-Like Ophyrs - The Late Spider Orchid

Flower Size 1 1/2" [3.75 cm]

A small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial from Libya, Great Britain, France, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, eastern Aegean Islands, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Romania, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Iraq in short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations of sea level to 1500 meters with 3 to 7 basal, ovate-oblong leaves that blooms with the foliage still fresh in the late spring on a 1 1/2' [45 cm] long, loosely 3 to 8 flowered inflorescence with foul smelling flowers.

Synonyms Epipactis arachnites (Scop.) F.W.Schmidt 1795; Ophrys aegirtica P.Delforge 1996; Ophrys annae J. & P. Devillers-Terschuren 1992; Ophrys arachnites Scopoli 1772; Ophrys arachnites (Scopoli) Reichard, nom illeg 1778; Ophrys arachnites subsp. holubyana (Andrs.) Holub 1983; Ophrys arachnoides Andrasovszky 1831; Ophrys aramaeorum P.Delforge 2000; *Arachnites fuciflora Schmidt 1893; Ophrys brachyotes Rchb. 1830; Ophrys flavescens Sassenf. 1903; Ophrys fuciflora f. flavescens Rosbach 1880; Ophrys fuciflora f. tallosii So 1973; Ophrys fuciflora f. triloboviridis So 1973; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. annae (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) R.Engel & Quentin 1996; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior Gumpr. 1980; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior (Paulus) R.Engel & Quentin 1997; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. gracilis Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1973; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. heterochila (Renz & Taubenheim) H.Blatt & W.Wirth 1990; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. holubyana (Andrasovszky) Dostal; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lorenae E.De Martino & Centur. 2002; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. maxima (H. Fleischmann) So 1973; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. untchjii M.Schulze 1907; Ophrys fuciflora var. apiformoides Balayer 1986; Ophrys fuciflora var. carmeloides Balayer 1986; Ophrys fuciflora var. maxima H. Fleischmann 1925; Ophrys gracilis (Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Englmaier 1984; Ophrys gresivaudanica O.Gerbaud 2002; Ophrys heterochila (Renz & Taubenheim) Paulus & Gack 1990; Ophrys holoserica (Burmller) Greuter 1967; Ophrys holoserica subsp. annae (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) H.Baumann & al 1995; Ophrys holoserica subsp. elatior (Paulus) H.Baumann & Knkele 1998; Ophrys holoserica subsp. gracilis (Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch) O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1975; Ophrys holoserica subsp. heterochila Renz & Taubenheim 1980; Ophrys holoserica subsp. holubyana (Andrs.) Dostl 1984; Ophrys holoserica subsp. maxima (H. Fleischmann) Greuter 1967; Ophrys holoserica var. flavescens (Rosbach) H.Sund. 1975; Ophrys holubyana Andrasovszky ?; Ophrys maxima (Fleischm.) Paulus & Gack 1986; Ophrys posidonia P.Delforge 2000; Ophrys serotina Rolli ex Paulus 2000; Ophrys untchjii (M.Schulze) P.Delforge 2000; Orchis arachnites Scop. 1772; Orchis fuciflora Crantz 1769; Orchis holosericea Burmller ?;

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as O arachnites [Leop.] Hoffm.; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as O arachnites; AOS Bulletin Vol 38 No 9 1969; Die Orchideen #4 13-16 tafel 5 Rudolph Schlechter 1971 photo fide; Die Orchideen Band 3 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1973 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 50 No 10 1981 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 2 1985 photo as O holoserica; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2004; AOS Bulletin Vol 75 No 2 2006 photo as P holoserica; AOS Bulletin Vol 77 No 8 2008 photo; Mille et Une Mini Orchideees Roguenant 2009 photo fide;

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. apulica O. & E. Danesch 1969

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Puglia Ophrys [A region Of Italy]

Flower Size 1.1" to 1.45" [2.8 to 3.6 cm]

Found only in Italy at elevations of sealevel to 900 meters as a small to just medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms in the spring with leaves that are still fresh on a terminal, erect, 6" to 24" [15 to 60 cm] long, 3 to 10[14] flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys apulica (O. & E. Danesch) O. & E. Danesch 1975; Ophrys dinarica Kranjcev & P.Delforge 2004; Ophrys heldreichii subsp. pharia (Devillers & Devillers-Tersch.) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys holosericea subsp. dinarica (Kranjcev & P.Delforge) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys pharia Devillers & Devillers-Tersch. 2004

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O apulica; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. biancae Pederson & Farholdt 2007

Part sunCold EARLYSpring

Common Name Bianca's Ophrys [Italian Botanist early 1800's]

Flower Size 1.1" [2.8cm]

This is a Sicilian, miniature to small sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid of short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 700 meters that blooms with leaves still fresh on a terminal, erect, 4 to 10" [10 to 25 cm] long, 4 to 10 flowered inflorescence arising in the early spring.

Synonyms *Arachnites biancae Todaro 1842; Ophrys anapei O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1972; Ophrys biancae (Todaro) Macchiati 1881; Ophrys discors Bianca 1842; Ophrys holoserica subsp. biancae (Tod.) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen 2002; Ophrys oxyrrhynchos subsp. biancae (Tod.) Galesi, Cristaudo & Maugeri 2004

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O biancae; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) B.Willing & E.Willing 1975

Part shade Cool Spring

Common Name Bornmueller's Ophrys [German Botanist later 1800's - early 1900's]

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

This small to medium sized, cool growing terrestrial orchid is found in Turkey, Syria, Leabanon, Israel and Jordan in short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 1200 meters that blooms in the spring on a 4 to 15 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys andria P.Delforge 1994; Ophrys andria var. halkionis G.Kretzschmar & H.Kretzschmar 1996; *Ophrys bornmuelleri M. Schulze 1899; Ophrys bornmuelleri subsp. carduchorum Renz & Taubenheim 1980; Ophrys carduchorum (Renz & Taubenheim) P.Delforge 1990; Ophrys fuciflora var. grandiflora (H.Fleischm. & So) B.Willing & E.Willing 1975; Ophrys holoserica subsp. andria (P.Delforge) Faurh 2002; Ophrys holoserica subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) H.Sund 1975; Ophrys holosericea subsp. grandiflora (H.Fleischm. & So) Faurh. 2003; Ophrys holoserica var. grandiflora (H.Fleischm. & So) Landwehr in ?; Ophrys thesei P.Delforge 1997; Ophrys ziyaretiana Kreutz & Ruedi Peter 1997

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 2 1985 photo as O holoserica var bornmurlleri; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O bornmuelleri; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. candica Nelson ex So 1978 Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Candia Ophrys [Iraklion]

Flower Size 1 1/4" [3 cm]

Found in Italy, Sicily, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus in short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations of sea level to 1500 meters as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms with leaves that are still fresh at the peak of flowering in the spring on a 6 to 18" [15 to 45 cm] long, erect, terminal, 2 to 7 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys candica (E. Nelson ex So) H. Baumann & Knkele 1981; Ophrys candica Greuter, Matths & Risse nom. inval. 1985; Ophrys candica subsp. minoa C. & A. Alibertis 1989; Ophrys candica var. minoa (C.Alibertis & A.Alibertis) Paulus & al. 2001; *Ophrys fuciflora subsp. candica Nelson ex So 1978; Ophrys holoserica subsp. candica (E.Nelson ex So) Renz & Taubenheim 1983; Ophrys minoa (C. & A. Alibertis) Delforge 1991

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O candica; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys oxyrrhynchos subsp. celiensis (O. & E. Danesch) Del Prete Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

Common Name The Ceglie-Messapico [Brindisi] Ophrys [A region of Puglia Italy]

Flower Size 1.4" [3.5 cm]

An Italian, small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid at elevations up to 500 meters that blooms in the spring on a 3 to 6 flowered, erect inflorescence.

Synonyms *Ophrys fuciflora subsp. celiencis Danesch 1970

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O celiensis

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. chestermanii (J.J. Wood) Blatt & Wirth 1990

Part shade ColdSpring

Common Name Chesterman's Ophrys [English Botanist current]

Flower Size 1.4" [3.6 cm]

This miniature to small sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid is endemic to Sardinia in mossy areas in Clistus scrub and in open woodlands at elevations of sealevel to 1500 meters in calcariferous stoney soils where it blooms in the spring with leaves that are still fresh on a terminal, erect, 2 to 5[8] flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys chestermanii (J.J. Wood) Glz & Reinhard 1988; *Ophrys holoserica subsp. chestermanii J.J. Wood 1982

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O chestermanii; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior Gumpr. 1980 Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sunColdSpringandSummer

Common Name The Higher Ophrys [refers to the plants height]

Flower Size 3/4" [2 cm]

Found in France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Yugoslavia in short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, scrub and open woodlands as a small to giant sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid sea level to 1500 meters that blooms in the spring and summer on an erect, terminal, 4.8 to 36" [12 to 90 cm] long, 6 to 13 [21] flowered, racemose inflorescence that has withered leaves at flowering.

Synonyms Ophrys elatior Paulus 1996; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior (Paulus) R.Engel & Quentin 1997; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. gracilis Bel & O. & E. Danesch 1973; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. tetraloniae (W.P.Teschner) Faurh. 2008; Ophrys fuciflora var. gracilis (Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Faurh 2008; Ophrys fuciflora var. posidonia (P.Delforge) Faurh.2008; Ophrys gracilis (Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Englmaier 1984; Ophrys holoserica subsp. elatior (Paulus) H.Baumann & Knkele 1998; Ophrys holoserica subsp. gracilis (Bel, O.Danesch & E.Danesch) O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1975; Ophrys holosericea subsp. posidonia (P.Delforge) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys holosericea subsp. tetraloniae (W.P.Teschner) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys posidonia P.Delforge 2000; Ophrys tetraloniae W.P.Teschner 1987

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O elatior; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O gracilis; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp grandiflora Faurholdt 2007

Part sunCool Spring

Common Name The Levant Ophrys [Refers to Turkey through Israel]

Flower Size 1.25" [2.8 cm]

Found as a miniature to small sized, cool growing terrestrial orchid in southwestern and southern Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon and Israel in short grassland, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open pinewoods at elevations up to 1400 meters that blooms in the spring.

Synonyms Ophrys levantina Glz & Reinhard 1985

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O levantina; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lacaitae (Lojacono) So 1973

Part shadeCold LATESpring to EARLYSummer

Common Name Lacaita's Ophrys [English Botanist 1800's - early 1900's]

Flower Size 1 1/4" [3 cm]

Found in Croatia, Malta and southern Italy and Sicily as a miniature to small sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid occuring in slightly acid soils in dry grasslands and scrubby forests at elevations to 1200 meters that blooms in the late spring through early summer with leaves that are still fresh on a terminal, 4 to 12" [10 to 30 cm] long, 2 to 11 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lacaitae (Lojacono) So 1973; Ophrys holoserica subsp. lacaite (Lojacono) Rossi 1981 Pub 1983; Ophrys lacaitae Lojacono 1909; Ophrys oxyrrhynchos subsp. lacaitae (Lojac.) Del Prete 1984

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O lacaitae; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. oxyrrhynchos So 1927

Part shade Cold Spring

Common Name The Pointed Beak Ophrys

Flower Size 1.33" [3.2 cm]

A minature to small sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid in short grasslands, abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations of sealevel to 1500 meters that blooms in the spring with leaves still fresh on an erect, terminal, 4 to 12" [10 to 30 cm] long, 3 to 9 flowered inflorescence and is found in Italy and Sicily.

Synonyms Arachnites oxyrhynchus Tod. 1842; Ophrys holoserica subsp. oxyrrhynchos Sundermann 1975; Ophrys oxyrrhynchos Todaro 1840

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo as O oxyrrhynchos; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O oxyrrhynchos; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fuciflora subsp. parvimaculata O. & E. Danesch 1970

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Small Speculum Ophrys

Flower Size 1 to 1 1/4" [2.5 to 3.1 cm]

Found in Southern Italy in open woodlands at elevations up to 600 meters as a miniature to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that blooms in the spring on a 4 to 14" [10 to 35 cm] long, terminal, erect, 2 to 7 flowered inflorescence with leaves that are still fresh during flowering.

Synonyms Ophrys holoserica subsp. parvimaculata (O. & E. Danesch) O. & E. Danesch 1975; Ophrys parvimaculata (O. & E. Danesch) Paulus & Gack 1990

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O parvimaculata; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

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