Ophrys fusca Link 1799 Photo courtesy of F.Dusak and the Orchids of France and Europe

O bilunulata France Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

O forestieri Southern France Italy Photo courtesy of Francois Rion and the Orchids of France and Europe

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Common Name The Brownish Ophyrs - In France - Ophrys sombre - In Germany - Brenne-ragwurz

Flower Size about 1.25" [to 3.2 cm]

Found in Portugal, Spain, the Balaeric Islands, France, Sardinia, Italy, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco at elevations of sea level to 1500 meters as a miniature to small sized, cold growing terrestrial with 4 to 6 basal, oblong-lanceolate to ovate leaves that blooms in late winter and spring on a 12" [30 cm] long, 1 to 10 flowered inflorescence with the flowers all held in the upper third..

Synonyms Arachnites fusca Tod. 1893; Ophrys africana G.Foelsche & W.Foelsche 2001; Ophrys arnoldii P.Delforge 1999; Ophrys attaviria Rückbrodt & Wenker 1990; Ophrys bilunulata Risso 1844; Ophrys blitopertha Paulus & Gack 1998; Ophrys cinereophila Paulus & Gack 1998; Ophrys creberrima Paulus 1998; Ophrys cressa Paulus 1998; Ophrys creticola Paulus 1998; Ophrys ficuzzana H.Baumann & Künkele 1986; Ophrys funerea Viviani 1824; Ophrys fusca subsp. akhdarensis B.Baumann & H.Baumann 2001; Ophrys fusca subsp. blitopertha (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen 2002; Ophrys fusca subsp. creberrima (Paulus) H.Kretzschmar 2002; Ophrys fusca subsp. cressa (Paulus) H.Kretzschmar 2002; Ophrys fusca subsp. creticola (Paulus) H.Kretzschmar 2002; Ophrys fusca subsp. thriptiensis (Paulus) H.Kretzschmar 2002; Ophrys fusca var. forestieri Rchb. f 1851; Ophrys fusca var. maculata Balayer 1986; Ophrys fusca var. rubescens Balayer 1986; Ophrys holoserica subsp. maxima (H. Fleischmann) Greuter 1967; Ophrys lupercalis Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994; Ophrys marmorata G.Foelsche & W.Foelsche 1998; Ophrys myodes Lapeyr. 1813; Ophrys nicotiae Zodda 1900; Ophrys obaesa Lojac. 1909; Ophrys obscura Beck 1879; Ophrys oestrifera Rchb. 1830; Ophrys parosica P.Delforge 1995; Ophrys pectus Mutel 1835; Ophrys peraiolae G.Foelsche & al. 2000; Ophrys peraiolae var. rubra G.Foelsche & al. 2000; Ophrys phaseliana D.Rückbr. & U.Rückbr. 1996; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. moesziana Soó 1927; Ophrys sulcata Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994; Ophrys thriptiensis Paulus 1998; Ophrys tricolor Desf. ex Nyman 1882; Ophrys truncata Dulac 1867; Ophrys zonata Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007; Mille et Une Mini Orchideees Roguenant 2009 photo good;

Ophrys fusca subsp. funerea (Viviani) Nyman 1882 Photo courtesy of F.Verhart and the Orchids of France and Europe

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Common Name The Funeral Ophrys

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

Found in Corsica, Sardinia and Italy in abandoned cultivation, garrigue, scrub and open woodland at elevations up to 900 meters as a small sized, cold growing terrestrial blooms in the late winter and spring.

Synonyms *Ophrys funerea Viviani 1824

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007 Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O funerea

Ophrys fusca subsp. iricolor (Desf.) O.Schwarz 1934 Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

Another Color Variety Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

O eleonorae Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part shade LATEWinterandSpring

Flower Size 1.4" [3.2 cm]

A miniature to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid occuring in the Balaeric Islands, Sardinia, the Aegean Islands, Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Malta in scrub, open woodlands and garrigue at elevations up to 1100 meters as a small to large sized, cold growing terrestrial with 3 to 4 basal, ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves that blooms in late winter and spring on a terminal, 4 to 28" [10 to 70 cm] long, 1 to 4 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys astypalaeica P.Delforge 1997; Ophrys eleonorae J. & P. Devillers-Terschuren 1991; Ophrys fusca f. maxima Terracciano ; Ophrys fusca subsp. iricolor (Desfontaines) K. Richter 1934; Ophrys fusca var. iricolor (Desf.) Rchb. 1851; Ophrys iricolor Desfontaines 1807; Ophrys iricolor subsp. eleonorae (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Paulus & Gack 1995; Ophrys iricolor subsp. vallesiana (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Paulus & Gack 1995; Ophrys mesaritica Paulus, C.Alibertis & A.Alibertis 1990; Ophrys vallesiana Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O astypalaeica; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys fusca subsp. pallida (Rafinesque) E.G. Camus 1929

Part shadeCold LATEWinterandSpring

Flower Size .8" [2 cm]

Found in northwestern Sicily, northeastern Algeria, Malta and Tunisia at elevations of sea level to 1500 meters as a minature to just medium sized, cold growing terrestrial with a slender stem carrying a few basal leaves that blooms in the winter through spring on a terminal, 2 to 6 flowered, dense racemose inflorescence.

Synonyms Arachnites pallida Tod. 1842; Ophrys pallida Rafinesque 1810

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007 AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo as O pallida; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O pallida

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