Ophrys scolopax Cavanilles 1799 Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Deep Forest Ophyrs - Woodcock Orchid - in France Ophrys be'casse and O oiseaux - in Germany -Gehornte-ragwurz

Flower Size about 1" [about 2.5 cm]

Found in Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, , The Canary Islands, Portugal, Spain, Balaeric Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, eastern Aegean Islands, Greece, Yugoslavia, Crimea and Turkey, in grasslands, scrublands and light forests in calcareous or acidic soils as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid with 5 to 6 lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate leaves that blooms in the spring on a 15" [37.5 cm] long, 3 to 10 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys abchasica (Kümpel) P.Delforge 1991; Ophrys apiformis Steud. 1821; Ophrys asilifera Vayr 1890; Ophrys atropos (Barla) Jackson 1868; Ophrys aurita Brot. 1827; Ophrys corniculata Brotero 1827; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. scolopax (Cavanilles) Sundermann ?; Ophrys holoserica subsp. apiformis (Desf.) H.Sund 1975; Ophrys holoserica subsp. scolopax (Cav.) H.Sund. 1975; Ophrys minutula Gölz & H.R.Reinhard 1989; Ophrys oestrifera subsp. abchasica Kümpel 1988; Ophrys phrygia Fleischm. & Bornm. 1923; Ophrys picta Link 1799; Ophrys schelkownikowii Woronow 1917; Ophrys schlechteriana (Soó) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994; Ophrys scolopax f. chlorosepala Thell. 1914; Ophrys scolopax f. picta (Link) Batt. 1895; Ophrys scolopax f. viridiflora A.Camus 1921; Ophrys scolopax subsp. minutula (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Biel 1999; Ophrys scolopax var. chlorosepala (Thell.) Maire & Weiller 1959; Ophrys scolopax var. granatensis Amo 1871; Ophrys scolopax var. honckensis E.G.Camus 1900; Ophrys scolopax var. minutula (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 1997; Ophrys scolopax var. picta (Link) Rchb. 1851; Ophrys speculum Link 1799 publ. 1800; Ophrys vetula Risso 1844

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as O cornuta; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 drawing ok; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as O cornuta; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; AOS Bulletin Vol 51 No 3 1982 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 2 1985 photo; Orchids Australia Vol 10 No 6 1998 photo; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys scolopax subsp. apiformis (Desfontaines) Maire & Weiller 1959 Photo courtesy of F. Dusak and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part shadeCold Spring

Common Name The Wasp Bearing Ophrys

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

Found in Spain, Portugal, Ibiza, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Tunisia and Morocco in short grasslands, garrigue, olive groves, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 2000 meters as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that blooms in the spring on a terminal, 4 to 16" [10 to 40 cm] long, erect, 2 to 14 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys apiformis Desfontaines ex Steudel 1821; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. apiformis (Desfontaines) Sundermann 1980; Ophrys insectifera var. apiformis Desfontaines 1799; Ophrys ouritensis Guitonneau; Ophrys sphegifera Willdenow 1805

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O sphegifera; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta [Steven] E.G. Camus 1908Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

FragrancePart shade Cold SpringandSummer

Common Name The Horned Ophrys

Flower Size 1 1/4" [3 cm]

This small to medium sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial species is from Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Eastern Aegaen Islands, Yugoslavia, Crimea and Turkey in garrigue, short grasslands and scrub at elevations up to 2000 meters and blooms in the spring and summer on a 15" long, loosely 3 to 6 flowered inflorescence with foul smelling flowers.

Cited as a synonym of Ophrys fusca but there are several visual differences so I will leave them separate at this time.

Synonyms Ophrys balcanica Soó 1929; Ophrys bicornis Sadler ex Nendtv. 1836; Ophrys cerastes Devillers & Devillers-Tersch. 2004; Ophrys cornuta Stevens 1809; Ophrys cornuta f. banatica Rchb.f. ex Pantu & Procop. 1901; Ophrys cornuta f. crassicornis Renz 1929; Ophrys cornuta var. minuscula G.Thiele & W.Thiele 2002; Ophrys cornutula Paulus 2001; Ophrys crassicornis (Renz) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 2004; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. cornuta (Steven) H.Sund. 1980; Ophrys holoserica subsp. cornuta (Steven) H.Sund. 1975; Ophrys leptomera P.Delforge 2000; Ophrys muscaria Pall. 1773; Ophrys oestrifera Rchb. 1830; Ophrys oestrifera subsp. cornuta (Steven) Soó 1932; Ophrys oestrifera var. banatica (Rchb.f. ex Pantu & Procop.) Soó 1959; Ophrys oestrifera var. grandiflora B.Willing & E.Willing 1985; Ophrys oestrifera subsp. leptomera (P.Delforge) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys picta Bory & Chaub. 1838; Ophrys rhodostephane Devillers & Devillers-Tersch. 2004; Ophrys scolopax f. crassicornis (Renz) Soó 1970; Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta [Steven] E.G. Camus 1908; Ophrys scolopax subsp. oestrifera (M.Bieb.) Soó 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys scolopax var. bicornis (Sadler ex Nendtv.) Nyman in ?; Ophrys scolopax var. grandiflora (B.Willing & E.Willing) Biel 2000; Ophrys sepioides Devillers & Devillers-Tersch. 2004; Orchis oestrifera (M.Bieb.) M.Bieb. 1819

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 49 No 4 1980 photo as O oestrifera; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O oestrifera; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys scolopax subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson 1962Photo courtesy of M.Verhart and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part shade Cold Spring

Flower Size 1 1/2" [3.75 cm]

Common Name Heldrich's Ophrys

Found in Greece and the surrounding islands [Crete, Naxos, Paros & Rhodes] as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, 6 to 18" [15 to 45 cm] long, 2 to 10 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys calypsus M.Hirth & H.Spaeth 1994; Ophrys heldreichii Schlechter 1923; Ophrys heldreichii var. calypsus (M.Hirth & H.Spaeth) P.Delforge 1995; Ophrys heldreichii subsp. schlechteriana Soó 1926; Ophrys lapethica Gölz & H.R.Reinhard 1989; Ophrys oestrifera subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) Soó 1931; Ophrys scolopax subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson 1962; Ophrys scolopax subsp. lapethica (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) G.Morschek & K.Morschek 1996; Ophrys sitiaca Paulus, C.Alibertis & A.Alibertis 1988

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O heldrichii; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys scolopax subsp. rhodia (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. 1997 Photo courtesy of M.Verhart and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part shadeColdSpring

Common Name The Rhodes Ophrys

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

This small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid is endemic to the island of Rhodes in short grasslands, abandones cultivation, garrigue, scrub, olive groves and open woodlands at elevations up to 600 meters and blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, 4 to 14" [10 to 35 cm] long, 3 to 12 flowered inflorescence.

SynonymsOphrys rhodia (H. Baumann & Künkele) P. Delforge 1990 ; *Ophrys umbilicata subsp. rhodia Baumann & Künkele 1986

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O rhodia; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------