Please make sure that you scroll down on this page as there are many subspecies below the synonyms

Ophrys sphegodes Miller 1768 Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

O exaltata Italy Sicily Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

O praecox Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

O provincialis Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part Sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Wasp-Like Ophyrs - The Early Spider Orchid

Flower Size to 1" [to 2.5 cm]

Found in Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, Balearic Islands, France, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, eastern Aegean Islands, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Crimea, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Iran in short grasslands, meadows, sometimes marshy, scrub, garrigue, and open woodlands at elevations up to 1300 meters as a miniature to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid with 5 to 9 basal, ovate-lanceolate leaves that blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, lax, 1 1/2' [45 cm] long, 3 to 9 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Arachnites aranifera Bubani 1901; Arachnites fuciflora var. panormitana Tod. 1842; Myodium araniferum (Huds.) Salisb. 1812; Ophrys arachnites var. panormitana Todaro; Ophrys aranifera Hudson 1761; Ophrys aranifera f. epirotica Renz 1928; Ophrys aranifera f. latipetala Chaub. ex St.-Amans 1821; Ophrys aranifera f. oodicheila Renz 1928; Ophrys aranifera f. peralba G.Keller in W.Zimmerman 1912; Ophrys aranifera f. pseudomuscifera Ruppert 1917; Ophrys aranifera f. purpurea A.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus 1929; Ophrys aranifera f. semilunaris W.Zimm. 1917; Ophrys aranifera subsp. helenae (Renz) So in ?; Ophrys aranifera subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) P.Fourn. in ?; Ophrys aranifera subsp. macedonica H.Fleischm. ex So 1927; Ophrys aranifera subvar. bavarica So 1927; Ophrys aranifera var. aurantiaca Beauverd 1929; Ophrys aranifera var. euchlora J.Murray 1905; Ophrys aranifera var. flavescens M.Schulze 1894; Ophrys aranifera var. rotulata Beck 1890; Ophrys aranifera var. subfucifera Rchb.f. 1851; Ophrys argensonensis J.-C.Gurin & A.Merlet 1998; Ophrys castellana Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1988; Ophrys cilentana Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 2000; Ophrys classica Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 2000; Ophrys cretensis (H.Baumann & Knkele) Paulus 1988; Ophrys crucigera Jacq. 1781; Ophrys climacis Heimeier & Perschke 1998; Ophrys delmeziana P.Delforge 1989; Ophrys epirotica (Renz) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1991; Ophrys exaltata subsp. castellana (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 2002; Ophrys exaltata subsp. cephalonica (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Soca 2002; Ophrys exaltata subsp. marzuola Geniez, Melki & Soca 2002; Ophrys exaltata subsp. mateolana (Medagli & al.) Paulus & Gack 1999; Ophrys exaltata subsp. montis-leonis (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Soca 2002; Ophrys exaltata subsp. sicula Del Prete, nom. illeg.; Ophrys exaltata subsp. tyrrhena (Glz & H.R.Reinhard) Del Prete in C.Del Prete & G.Tosi 1988; Ophrys fuciflora subsp. exaltata (Ten.) E.Nelson 1962; Ophrys fuchsii W.Zimm. 1917; Ophrys fucifera Curtis 1790; Ophrys fucifera Sm. 1830; Ophrys fuciflora Curtis 1778; Ophrys galeopsidea Lag. ex Colm. ?; Ophrys gortynia (H.Baumann & Knkele) Paulus 1988; Ophrys hebes (Kalopissis) E.Willing & B.Willing 1980; Ophrys helenae Renz 1928; Ophrys holoserica subsp. exaltata (Ten.) H.Sund. 1975; Ophrys incubacea subsp. garganica (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Galesi, Cristaudo & Maugeri 2004; Ophrys insectifera var. pallescens Moggr. 1869; Ophrys insectifera var. rubescens Moggr. 1869; Ophrys litigiosa Camus 1900; Ophrys macedonica (H.Fleischm. ex So) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994; Ophrys majellensis (Helga Daiss & Herm.Daiss) P.Delforge 1998; Ophrys massiliensis Viglione & Vla 1999; Ophrys mateolana Medagli & al. 1991; Ophrys melitensis (Salk.) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1994; Ophrys montenegrina (H.Baumann & Knkele) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1991; Ophrys montis-leonis O.Danesch & E.Danesch 1972; Ophrys panormitana (Todaro) So 1973; Ophrys panormitana subsp. praecox (Corrias) Paulus & Gack 1995; Ophrys panormitana var. praecox (Corrias) P.Delforge 2000; Ophrys passionis subsp. majellensis (Helga Daiss & Herm.Daiss) Romolini & Soca 2000; Ophrys renzii So 1929; Ophrys riojana C.E.Hermos. 1999; Ophrys ruppertii A.Fuchs 1917; Ophrys sphegodes f. latipetala (Chaub. ex St.-Amans) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes f. pseudomuscifera (Ruppert) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes f. subfucifera (Rchb.f.) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. aurantiaca (Beauverd) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. bavarica (Soo) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. euchlora (J.Murray) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. flavescens (M.Schulze) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. pallescens (Moggr.) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. peralba (G.Keller) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. purpurea (A.Camus) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. rotulata (Beck) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. rubescens (Moggr.) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes lus. semilunaris (W.Zimm.) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aesculapii (Renz) So ex J.J.Wood 1980; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. cephalonica B.Baumann & H.Baumann 1984; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. cretensis H.Baumann & Knkele 1986; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. epirotica (Renz) Glz & H.R.Reinhard 1983; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. garganica E.Nelson 1962; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. gortynia H.Baumann & Knkele 1986; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. hebes Kalopissis 1975; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) So & D.M.Moore 1978; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa (Rchb.) Lainz ?; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) Bech. 1925; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. majellensis Helga Daiss & Herm.Daiss 1996 publ. 1997; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. melitensis Salk. 1992; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. montenegrina H.Baumann & Knkele 1988; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. oodicheila (Renz) Riech. 2004; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. panormitana (Tod.) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. praecox B. Corrias 1983; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. provincialis H. Baumann & Knkele 1988; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. provincialis Nelson, nom. inval; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sicula Nelson ex So 1978; Ophrys sphegodes var. garganicoides Balayer 1986; Ophrys sphegodes var. gigantea A.Fuchs 1917; Ophrys sphegodes var. helenae (Renz) H.Sund. 1975; Ophrys sphegodes var. subaesculapiana Balayer 1986; Ophrys sphegodes var. sicula (E.Nelson ex So) Galesi 2004; Ophrys sphegodes var. subspruneriana Balayer 1986; Ophrys sphegodes var. subtommasiniana Balayer 1986 ; Ophrys spruneri subsp. panormitana (Tod.) So 1970 publ. 1971; Ophrys tarquinia P.Delforge 2000; Ophrys trinacrica Del Prete ?; Ophrys tommasinii subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) So 1973

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as O aranifera; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as O aranifera atrata drawing fide; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as O aranifera; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 photo ok; Die Orchideen #4 13-16 tafel 5 Rudolph Schlechter 1971 photo ok; Die Orchideen Band 3 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1973 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 51 No 3 1982 photo as O sphecodes [sic] ssp provincialis; AOS Bulletin Vol 53 No 2 1984 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 53 No 2 1984 photo as O garganica; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo as O exaltata; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo as O garganica; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 4 1985 photo as O helenae; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 2 1985; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007; AOS Bulletin Vol 77 No 8 2008 photo

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aesculapii (Renz) So ex J.J.Wood 1980 Photo courtesy of Bill Temple

Part sunCold Spring

Common Name Aesculpius Ophyrs [Greek God]

Flower Size

Found in Greece in short grasslands, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 1000 meters as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms in the spring on an erect, 6 to 16" [15 to 40 cm] long, 3 to 14 flowered inflorescence

Synonyms Ophrys aesculapii Renz 1928; Ophrys aranifera subsp. aesculapii (Renz) So 1929; Ophrys aranifera subsp. renzii So 1929; Ophrys climacis Heimeier & Perschke 1998; Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. climacis (Heimeier & Perschke) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz 2005; Ophrys renzii So 1929;

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O aesculpaii

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f) Mayer 1952 Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sunCold Spring

Common Name The Matte Black Ophrys

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

Found in Portugal, Spain, Balaeric Islands, France, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy, Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and Albania as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid occuring in grasslands and open pine forests at elevations of sealevel to 1300 meters that blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, 8 to 16" [20 to 40 cm] long, 3 to 8 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Arachnites atrata Tod. 1879; Ophrys aranifera subsp. atrata Arcangeli; Ophrys aranifera subsp. incubacea (Bianca) So; Ophrys aranifera var. atrata Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach 1851; Ophrys aranifera var. rubriflora Rivas Goday 1927; Ophrys atrata Lindl. 1836; Ophrys biceratia Delile ex Nyman 1882; Ophrys cyanogramma Welw. ex Nyman 1882; Ophrys incubacea Bianca 1842; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f) Mayer 1952; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) Malag. 1976 publ. 1977

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 53 No 2 1984 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 2 1985 photo; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O incubacea; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. epirotica (Renz) Glz & H.R.Reinhard 1983 Photo courtesy of Bill Temple

Part sunCold LATERSpring

Common Name The Epirus Ophrys [refers to an area of Greece]

Flower Size .8" [2 cm]

Found in Albania and Greece in short grasslands, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 500 meters as a miniature to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms in the later spring with 3 to 7 rather small flowers

Synonyms *Ophrys aranifera f. epirotica Renz 1928; Ophrys epirotica (Renz) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1991; Ophrys mammosa subsp. epirotica (Renz) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz 2005

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O epirotica

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) So & D.M.Moore 1978 Photo courtesy of Bill Temple

Part sunColdSpring

Common Name Helen's Ophrys [Mother of Mr Renz the describer 1900's]

Flower Size .8 to 1.2" [2 to 3 cm]

Found in Albania and Greece in short grasslands, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 1000 meters as a smalll to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms in the spring on an erect, 6 to 16" [15 to 20 cm] long, 2 to 8 flowered inflorescence

Synonyms Ophrys aranifera subsp. helenae (Renz) So 1929; *Ophrys helenae Renz 1928; Ophrys sphegodes var. helenae (Renz) H.Sund. 1975

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O helenae

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) Bech. 1925 Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sunCold Spring and EARLY Summer

Common Name The Unclear Ophrys

Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

Found in Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Yugoslavia as a medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid with 5 top 9, ovate-lanceolate leaves that blooms on a terminal, erect, several [6 to 10] flowered inflorescence occuring in the spring and early summer .

Synonyms Ophrys araneola Rchb. 1831; Ophrys aranifera subsp. araneola (Rchb.) Richter 1890; Ophrys araneola subsp. illyrica (S.Hertel & K.Hertel) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys aranifera subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) P.Fourn. in ?; Ophrys aranifera var. pseudospeculum Rchb. fil.; Ophrys aranifera var. quadriloba Rchb. fil. 1851; Ophrys argensonensis J.-C.Gurin & A.Merlet 1998; Ophrys argentaria J. & P. Devillers-Terschuren 1991; Ophrys ausonia Devillers, Devillers-Tersch. & P.Delforge 2004; Ophrys illyrica S.Hertel & K.Hertel 2002; Ophrys incantata Devillers & Devillers-Tersch. 2004; Ophrys litigiosa E.G.Camus 1900; Ophrys quadriloba (Rchb.f.) E.G.Camus 1908; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. araneola (Rchb.) Lainz; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. argensonensis (J.-C.Gurin & A.Merlet) Kreutz 2004; Ophrys sphegodes var. argentaria (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Faurh. 2002; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. tommasinii (Visiani) So; Ophrys tommasinii Visiani 1852; Ophrys tommasinii subsp. litigiosa (E.G.Camus) So 1973

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 53 No 2 1984 photo as O litigosa; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O argentaria; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O araneola; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desfontaines) So Photo courtesy of P.-M. Blais and the Orchids of France and Europe

Side View of Flower Photos by Bohdan Synko, Kyiv Orchid Society, Ukraine

Part shadeCold Spring

Common Name The Full Breasted Ophrys [refers to the swellings on the speculum]

Flower Size 1.35" [3.8 cm]

A small to just large sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that is found in Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Crimea, Israel, Jordan and Northern Iran in short grasslands, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 1400 meters that blooms in the spring on an erect, lax, 5 to 12 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys adonidis A.Camus & Gomb 1951; Ophrys amanensis (E.Nelson ex Renz & Taubenheim) P.Delforge 1991; Ophrys antalyensis Kreutz & Seckel in C.A.J.Kreutz 1998; Ophrys aranifera subsp. transhyrcana (Czerniak.) So 1931; Ophrys aranifera var. taurica Aggeenko 1986; Ophrys aranifera var. vierhapperi So 1927; Ophrys grammica (B.Willing & E.Willing) Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers 1991; Ophrys hystera Kreutz & Ruedi Peter 1997; Ophrys mammosa Desfontaines 1807; Ophrys mammosa subsp. grammica B.Willing & E.Willing 1985; Ophrys mammosa subsp. serotina B. & E. Willing 1985; Ophrys mammosa subsp. transhyrcana (Czerniak.) Buttler 1986; Ophrys mammosa subsp. vierhapperi (So) So 1973; Ophrys sintenisii Fleischm. & Bornm. 1923;; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. parnassica Vierhapper ex So 1980; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sintenisii (Fleischm. & Bornm.) E.Nelson 1962; Ophrys sphegodes subsp. transhyrcana (Czerniak.) So 1959; Ophrys taurica (Aggeenko) Nevski; Ophrys transhyrcana Czerniak 1923; Ophrys transhyrcana subsp. amanensis E.Nelson ex Renz & Taubenheim 1983

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 31 No 8 1962 photo as O sintenisii; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O mamossa; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. passionis (Sennen ex Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Sanz & Nuet 1995 Photo courtesy of Pascal Pernot and the Orchids of France and Europe

O garganica Spain, France, Italy and Sicily Photo courtesy of Th.Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Passion Ophrys [An illusion to easter, it's bloom time]

Flower Size 1.1" [2.8 cm]

From southern Spain, western and southern France, Sardinia, Toscana to Calabria Italy as well as Sicily in poor grasslands, meadows, abandoned cultivation, banks, terraces, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 1300 meters as a small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial that blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, 8 to 16" [20 to 40 cm] long, laxly, 4 to 8 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys garganica subsp. passionis (Sennen ex Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Paulus & Gack 1999; Ophrys incubacea subsp. garganica (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) Galesi, Cristaudo & Maugeri 2004; Ophrys passionis Sennen 1931; Ophrys passionis var. garganica (O.Danesch & E.Danesch) P.Delforge 2004

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O passionis; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sipontensis Gumpr. 1967 Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part sun Cold Spring

Common Name The Siponto Ophrys [A village in Italy near Mt Gargano

Flower Size 1.2" [3 cm]

A small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that is endemic to the Siponto Plateau in Italy in short, poor grasslands, abandoned cultivation and garrigue at elevations up to 700 meters and blooms in the spring on a terminal, erect, 6 to 24" [15 to 60 cm] long, laxly, 2 to 8 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys garganica subsp. sipontensis (R.Lorenz & Gembardt) Del Prete 1984; Ophrys sipontensis Lorenz & Gembardt 1975

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

Ophrys sphegodes subps. spruneri [Nyman] Nelson Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

Part shadeColdLATEWinterandSpring

Common Name Spruner's Ophrys [Bavarian Botanist 1800's]

Flower Size 1.3" [3.3 cm]

A small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid that is found in Greece and the surrounding islands in short grasslands, garrigue, scrub and open woodlands at elevations up to 900 meters and blooms in the late winter and early spring on a terminal, erect, 6 to 16" [15 to 40 cm] long, lax to densely, 2 to 8 flowered inflorescence.

Synonyms Ophrys delphica Fleischm. ex Hayek 1926; Ophrys grigoriana G.Kretzschmar & H.Kretzschmar 1995; Ophrys sphaciotica Fleischm. 1925; Ophrys spruneri Nyman 1855; Ophrys spruneri subsp. grigoriana (G.Kretzschmar & H.Kretzschmar) H.Kretzschmar 2002

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 4 1985 photo as O spruneri; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005 as O spruneri; Ophyrs The Bee Orchids of Europe Pederson & Faurholdt 2007

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