!Rhynchostylis retusa [L.]Blume 1825 Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

Flower Closeup Photo courtesy of Lourens Grobler

Inflorescence Photo courtesy of Oak Hill Gardens

Fragrance Part sun Hot Cool Winter to EARLY Spring

Common Name The Blunt Rhynchostylis In Thailand - Phuang malai - Hang karawk - Aiyaret - In China Zuan Hui Lan

Flower Size 3/4" [2 cm]

This is a medium sized, hot to cool growing species that comes from the Chinese Himalayas, Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Western Himalayas, Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the Philippines in semi-deciduous and deciduous dry lowland forests and savana-like woodlands at elevations of sealevel to 1200 meters with stout, repent, short stem carrying to 12, curved, fleshy, ligualte, deeply channeled, keeled, praemorse or retuse apically leaves and blooms on an axillary, pendant, to 2' [60 cm]long, racemose, densely many flowered, cylyndrical inflorescence that occurs in the winter and early spring and requires even water and fertilizer year round.

Synonyms Aerides guttata [Lindl.] Roxb. 1832; Aerides preamorsa Wilde. 1805; Aerides retusa [L.] Sw. 1799; Aerides spicata D. Don 1825; Aerides undulata Sm. 1819; Anota violacea (Rchb.f.) Schltr. 1914; Epidendrum hippium Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don 1825; Epidendrum indicum Poir. 1810; *Epidendrum retusum L. 1753; Gastrochilus blumei (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Gastrochilus garwalicus (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Gastrochilus retusus (L.) Kuntze 1891; Gastrochilus rheedei (Wight) Kuntze 1891; Gastrochilus spicatus (D.Don) Kuntze 1891; Gastrochilus violaceus (Rchb.f.) Kuntze 1891; Limodorum retusum Sw. 1799; Orchis lanigera Blanco 1837; Rhynchostylis albiflora I.Barua & Bora 2002; Rhynchostylis garwalica [Lindl.] Rchb.f. 1864; Rhynchostylis gurwalica Rchb.f. 1864; Rhynchostylis guttata [Lindl.] Rchb.f 1854; Rhynchostylis praemorsa [Willd.] Blume 1825; Rhynchostylis retusa f. albiflora (I.Barua & Bora) Christenson 2005; Rhynchostylis violacea Rchb.f. 1854; Saccolabium blumei Lindley 1841; Saccolabium furcatum B.S.Williams 1862; Saccolabium garwalicum Lindley 1858; Saccolabium guttatum [Lindley] Wall 1832; Saccolabium heathii Hort. 1885; Saccolabium macrostachyum Lindl. 1841; Saccolabium praemorsum [Willd.] Lindley 1833; Saccolabium retusum Voight 1845; Saccolabium rheedii Wight 1852; Saccolabium spicatum (D.Don) Lindl. 1833; Saccolabium violaceum Rchb.f. 1854; Sarcanthus guttatus Lindl. 1831;

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Burma Grant 1895/1995; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 photo fide; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 drawing fide; Orchidiana Philippinaiana Vol 1 Valmayor 1984; Orchidiana Philippinaiana Vol 1 Valmayor 1984 as R violacea; Orchids of Java Comber 1990; Thai Orchid Species Rakpaibulsombat 1992 photo fide; The Wild Orchids of China Tsi, Chen & Mori 1997 Bonplandia Rchb.f 1854 as R violacea; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1854 as R guttata; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1857; The Orchids of Sikkim-Himalaya Part 1 King & Pantling 1898 drawing fide; Die Orchideen Von Java J.J.Sm. 1905; The Orchids of North-Western Himalaya Vol IX Part II Duthie 1906; Die Orchideen Von Java Figuren Atlas J.J.Smith 1908 drawing fide; The Orchids of Thailand Seidenfaden & Smitinand 1959 drawing, photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 32 No 2 1963 photo; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as R violacea; AOS Bulletin Vol 39 No 3 1970 photo; Beautiful Thai Orchid Species Kamemoto & Sagarik 1975 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 7 1978; AOS Bulletin VOl 47 No 9 1978 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 49 No 5 1979 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 49 No 8 1980 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985; Die Orchideen lieferung 19/20 Schlechter/Brieger 1988 photo fide; Opera Botanica #95 Seidenfaden 1988 drawing/photo fide; Orchids of Java Comber 1990 photo fide; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; The Orchids of Penninsular Malaysia and Singapore Wood & Seidenfaden 1992 drawing/photo fide; A Checklist of the Orchids of Borneo Wood & Cribb 1994; AOS Bulletin Vol 64 No 2 1995 photo; Native Orchids of China in Colour Singchi, Zhanhuo and Yibo 1999 photo fide; Orchid Australia Vol 12 No 5 2000 photo; Orchids Australia Vol 12 No 6 2000 photo; Orchids of Sumatra Comber 2001 photo fide; Orchid Flora Of Kamrup District Assam Iswar Chandra Barua 2001 drawing fide; A to Z of South East Asian Orchid Species Vol 1 O'Byrne 2001 photo fide; A field Guide to the Wild Orchids of Thailand Vaddhanaphuti 2001 photo fide; Beautiful Orchids of Nepal Rajbhandari & Bhattarai 2001; Orchids of Bhutan Pearce & Cribb 2002; Flora Malesiana Orchids of the Philippines Vol I Agoo, Shuiteman and de Vogel 2003; Wild Orchids in Myanamar Vol 1 Tanaka 2003; Australian Orchid Review Vol 69 No 2 2004 photo; A field Guide to the Wild Orchids of Thailand Vaddhanaphuti 2005 photo fide; 100 Sikkim Himalayan Orchids Pradhan 2005 photo fide; Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007 drawing ok/photo fide; Wild Orchids in Myanamar Vol 3 Tanaka 2007; A Field Guide to the Orchids of China Singchi, Zhongjian, Yibo, Xiaohua and Zhanhuo 2009 photo fide; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2009; Flora of China Vol 25 Illustrations Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2010 drawing fide; The Wild Orchids in Yunnan Xu Xiang Ye & Liu 2010 photos fide; Genera Orchidacearum Vol 6 Epidendroideae Pt 3 Pridgeon, Cribb, Chase and Rasmussen 2014 drawing fide; Philippine Native Orchid Species Cootews 2011 photo fide

Rhynchostylis retusa [L.]Blume 1825 var alba Photo courtesy of Beau

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Orchids of Burma Grant 1895/1995; Orchidiana Philippinaiana Vol 1 Valmayor 1984; Orchidiana Philippinaiana Vol 1 Valmayor 1984 as R violacea; Orchids of Java Comber 1990; The Wild Orchids of China Tsi, Chen & Mori 1997 AOS Bulletin Vol 28 No 10 1959 photo; Beautiful Thai Orchid Species Kamemoto & Sagarik 1975 photo fide;

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------