!Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall. 1827 Photo courtesy of Bill Temple

Inflorescence Photo courtesy of Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe

to LATE to EARLY

Common Name The Spiraled Spiranthes

Flower Size 1/4" [7mm]

Found in Ireland, Great Britain, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, France, Balaeric Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czechloslavakia, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Iran, and the western Himalayas in grasslands and dunes, sometimes marshes and open pinewoods at elevations up to 1400 meters as a miniature sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial orchid with clustered tuberous roots giving rise to ovate, acute, glossy dark green leaves held in a rosette that appear after the plant has flowered on an erect, 12" [30 cm] long, terminal, pubescent, many flowered, spicate inflorescence that the fragrant flowers twist around, occuring in the late summer and early fall and likes a limestone based media or soil. This species and Spiranthes sinensis are considered to be synomonous so look at both to see the total synonymry.

Synonyms Aristotelea spiralis Lour. 1790; Epipactis spiralis Crantz 1769; Gyrostachys autumnalis (Rich.) Dumort 1827; Gyrostachys spiralis (L.) Kuntze 1891; Ibidium spirale (L.) Salisb. 1812; Neottia autumnalis (Balb.) Pers. 1807; Neottia spiralis Sw 1805; Ophrys autumnalis Balb. 1801; Ophrys spiralis Linne 1753; Serapias spiralis (L.) Scop. 1772; Spiranthes autumnalis [Balb.]L.C.M. Richard 1817; Spiranthes autumnalis f. bracteata E.G.Camus 1908; Spiranthes autumnalis f. oycoviensis Zapal. 1906; Spiranthes autumnalis f. parviflora So 1928; Spiranthes autumnalis var. major Rouy 1912; Spiranthes autumnalis var. parviflora Schur 1866; Spiranthes glauca Raf. 1837

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as S autumnalis; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as S autumnalis drawing ok; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 photo ok; AOS Bulletin Vol 50 No 10 1981 Photo; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; Rudolf Schlechter Die Orchideen Lieferung 40 2000; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle east Delforge 2005; The Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007

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