!Caularthron bicornutum [Hooker]Raf. 1836

Photo by Jay Pfahl


Drawing by Dunsterville & Garay

FragranceFull sunWarmTo Hot Winter TO Spring

Common Name The Two Horned Caularthron or Virgin Mary Diacrium

Flower Size Up to 3" [5 cm]

Found in Venezuela, Guyana, Fr Guiana, Surinam, , Brazil and Trinidad and Tobago is often found close to the sea on rocks or cliffs or rivers as a medium sized, hot to warm growing, epiphytic or occasional lithophytic species with long-cylindrical, fusiform or elongate-ovoid pseudobulbs enveloped by white, papery bracts carrying, 3 to 4, towards the apex, oblong or elliptic-oblong, fleshy, coriaceous, obtuse leaves that blooms in the winter through the spring on a 6 to 16" [15 to 40 cm] long, slender, terminal, erect raceme that has a few to many [3 to 20] sequentially opening, fragrant fruit, cotton candy, raspberrys and strawberry scented, waxy flowers with small, ovate-lanceolate, acute,shorter than the ovary floral bracts and twisted pedicels that are longlasting and arise on newly matured pseudobulbs. The inflorescence appear in the fall and grow through the winter for a late winter through spring blooming.

Similar to C bilamellatum but has larger flowers with a deeply trilobed lip with narrower segments.

They are often found in association with ants that live in a hollow cavity with an entrance at the base of the older pseudobulbs. This species can bloom out of the apex of a newly emerging pseudobulb that will not develop further if the plant is under stress. Bright light, ample water while growing and a lessening in the winter ensures a healthy regular blooming plant.

Synonyms Diacrium amazonicum Schlechter 1925; Diacrium bicornutum [Hkr.]Benth. 1881; *Epidendrum bicornutum Hooker 1834

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ;

Bot. Mag. 61: t. 3332 Hooker 1834 as Epiderndrum bicornutum

*Fl. Tellur. 2: 41 Raf. 1837

Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856 as Epidendrum bicornutum;

J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 312 Benth. 1881 as Diacrium bicornutum;

Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as Diacrium bicornutum;

Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide;

Orchidaenfloren Kordillerenstaaten 1: Venezuela Schlechter 1920;

Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as Diacrium bicornutum drawing fide;

Iconografia de Orchidaceae Do Brasil Hoehne 1949 drawing fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 26 No 2 1957;

AOS Bulletin Vol 26 No 10 1957 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide;

Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated Vol 1 Dunsterville & Garay 1959 drawing fide;

Native Orchids of Trinidad Schultes 1960;

AOS Orchid Culture 1963 photo fide;

Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965;

AOS Bulletin Vol 36 #4 1967 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 36 # 9 1967;

Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 3 1970 drawing fide;

Orchidaceae Brasilenses Band 1 Pabst & Dungs 1975 drawing fide;

Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 10 576 - 632 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977 photo fide;

Orquideologia Vol 12 3/4 1977/8; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 7 1978 drawing fide;

Orchids of Venezuela; An Illustrated Field Guide Vol 1 Dunsterville & Garay 1979 drawing fide;

Orchids of Venezuela; An Illustrated Field Guide Dunsterville & Garay 1979;

An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids Pridgeon 1982;

The Manual of Cultivated Orchids Bechtel, Cribb & Laurent 1982;

The Orchids of Surinam Werkhoven 1986 photo fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 56 No 3 1987 photo fide;

Native Orchids of the Eastern Caribbean Kenny 1988; Orchids of Brazil McQueen 1993;

Manual of Orchids Stewart 1995;

Venezuela; Paraiso de Orquideas Romero 1997 photo fide;

Cattleyas and Their Relatives Vol V Withner 1998 photo fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 68 #5 1999 photo fide;

Orchids of Venezuela [An illustrated field guide] Vol. 1 Ramiro and Carnevali 2000 drawing fide;

Orchid Digest Vol 65 Vol 3 2001 photo fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 71 No 1 2002 photo fide;

AOS Bulletin Vol 71 #8 2002 postage Stamp fide;

Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Vol 7 Steyermark, Berry, Yatskievych and Holst 2003 drawing fide;

Botanica's Orchids Laurel Glen 2003;

AOS Bulletin Vol 73 No 8 2004;

Genera Orcidacearum Vol 4 Part 1 Pridgeon, Cribb, Chase and Rasmusen 2005 drawing/photo fide;

Flora's Orchids Nash & La Croix 2005;

Orquideas de la Serrania del Baudo Misas Urreta 2006 drawing/photo not = C bilamellatum;

AOS Bulletin vol 78 No 10 2009 photo fide;

Orquideas de Roirama Luz & Franco 2012 photo fide;

Orchids, A Colombian Treasure Vol 1 Ortiz & Uribe 2014 drawing/photo fide;

Orchid Digest Vol 80 #2 2016

Materials to the Orchid Flora of Colombia Vol IV:367 Szlatchetko & Kolanowska 2023 drawing fide