Epidendrum purpureocaule Essers & Sambin 2018GROUP Nocturnum SUBGROUP Nocturnum

LCDP Photo by © R Jimenez & A. Cisnero and Icones Orchidacearum 18(1) plate 1803 2020

Common Name The Purple Stem Epidendrum [

Flower Size 3" [7.5 cm]

Found in French Guiana and Amazonas state of Brazil at elevations around 100 meters as a miniature to small sized, hot growing, caespitose epiphye or lithophyte with simple, cane-like, strongly ancipitous, straight, dark green tinged purple stems except for the terete base, and carrying 3, along the apical 1/2 of the stem, ascendent, coriaceous, the apical leaf the largest, , laterally compressed, strongly ancipitose, minutely striated longitudinally, elliptic, apex bilobed, dark green on both sides, the underside slightly tinged purple leaves that blooms at most any time of the year on a terminal, racemose, producing one flower at a time, blooms for several years from the same inflorescence becoming pluri-racemose; peduncle and rachis hidden within the base of the leaf, successively single, few flowered inflorescence with usually hidden within the base of the apical leaf, triangular, acuminate, much shorter than the ovary floral bracts and carrying resupinate, diurnally fragrgant of cucumbers.

"Epidendrum purpureocaule belongs to the GROUP Nocturnum SUBGROUP Nocturnum which is characterized by the sympodial, caespitose plants, cane-like stems, short, racemose or pluri-racemose inflorescence without a spathe, and large star-shaped, successive flowers with similar sepals and petals. The new species is recognized by the dark green plants, to 4.4 to 8.4" sometimes larger [11 to 21 cm] tall, the stems and underside of the leaves tinged purple, the upper side of leaves dark green, stems laterally compressed, ancipitose, leaves 1.84 to 5.6" x 1 to 1.92" [4.6 to 14.0 x 2.5 to 4.8 cm], ascendent, coriaceous, elliptic, apex bilobed, the ovary 3.6 to 4.45" [90 to 115 mm], flowers large for the group, sepals pale brown to pale yellow green, petals pale green, lip white, column creamy white, green towards the base, calli white to pale yellow, sepals 2.68" to 3.36" x .16 to .36" [67 to 84 x 4 to 9 mm], margin revolute so as to become tubular, and the lip 2 to 2.12" x .68 to .76" [50 to 53 x 17 to 19 mm]; lateral lobes .84 to 1.12" x .24 to .32" [21 to 28 x 6 to 8 mm]. Epidendrum carpophorum Barb.Rodr. from Rio de Janeiro state has shorter terete stems, 12"[ 30 cm] tall, dark green leaves, smaller flowers, sepals 1.6 to 1.64" [40 to 41 mm] long, and a lip 1.46 x .84" [36 x 21 mm], the lateral lobes semi-ovate, apex acute. Epidendrum spruceanum Lindl. described from the same locality, “Barra do Rio Negro”, Amazonas, occurs in the Amazon basin of Brazil and Peru below 200 meters altitude; it is recognized by its relatively longer and narrower leaves, 3.2 to 7" x .8 to 1.8" [8.0 to 17.5 x 2.0 to 4.5 cm], shorter ovaries, 1.48 to 1.8" [37 to 45 mm] long, sepals 1.72 to 2.8" [48 to 70 mm] long, lateral lobes of the lip hemi-ovate, apex narrowly rounded, and the body of the capsule centered (we have used here only measurements of the type specimens: R. Spruce 1666). The new species has been confused with Epidendrum angustilobum Fawc. & Rendle (syn. Epidendrum latifolium (Lindl.) Garay & Sweet) which is widely distributed in the Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas, and occurs as a rare species in Costa Rica and Panama, in wet forests from 500 to 2000 meters altitude; that species exhibits much taller plants, to [25.6" [64 cm] tall, leaves 3.2 to 4.8" x .8 to 2.8" [8 to 12 x 2 to 7 cm], dark green, sepals 1.68 to 2.6" [42 to 65 mm] long, and the lateral lobes of the lip hemi-ovate, acuminate, and yellow calli. Epidendrum trapeziinocturnum Bar.- Colm. & Hágsater from Leticia, Colombia, also at Amazonian low altitude, also has large flowers, medium large plants up to 20" [50 cm] tall, the flattened stems, strongly ancipitose above the middle, with large medium green leaves 5.6 to 6" x 1 to 2.4" [13.5 to 15.0 x 2.5 to 6.0 cm, oblong, the ovary 4.8 to 4.88" [120 to 122 mm] long, the large flowers bright green with lip and calli white, and column, creamy white, sepals 3.84 to 3.88" x .2 to .24" [96 to 97 x 5 to 6 mm], lip deeply 3-lobed, lateral lobes of the lip narrowly semi-ovate, with the apex long acuminate, mid-lobe of the lip linear-triangular, 2.78 to 3.24" [68 to 81 mm] long, and the capsule with the body displaced towards the apical half. The Mesoamerican Epidendrum mesocarpum Hágsater is very similar in that the plant has ancipitose stems, ascendant, dark green and purple leaves 1 to 4" x .8 to 2" [2.5 to 10 x 2 to 5 cm], longer ovary 5.6 to 6.4" [140 to 160 mm] long, but somewhat smaller flowers, sepals 2.4 to 3" [60 to 75 mm] long, and the lip 1.8 x 1" [45 x 25 mm], with the lateral lobes .88" x .32" [22 x 8 mm]." Hagsater & Cisneros 2020

Synonyms Epidendrum ancipitinocturnum Hagsater & J M P Cordiero 2020

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; * Icones Orchidacearum 18(1) plate 1803 2020 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 18(2) Appendix 1 Hagsater & Santiago 2021 as Syn of E purpureocaule; Icones Orchidacearum 18(1) plate 1803 2020 photo fide;