Epidendrum atrorugosum Hágsater 1999 GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Rugosum

TYPE Drawing by © Jimenez, Hágsater & E.Santiago and The AMO Herbario Website


Common Name The Dark "Rugosum” Epidendrum [refers to the dark purple flower similar to E rugosum]

Flower Size .8" [2 cm]

Found in Costa Rica at elevations around 2200 to 2700 meters as a medium sized, cold growing epiphyte with flexuous, glabrous where nude stems the primary, long, producing secondary branches from the internodes, which in turn produce very short, flowering branches and these produce new successively flowering branches from the subapical nodes carrying numerous per stem, 2 to 3 per flowering branch, oblong, unequally bilobed, basally clasping leaves that blooms in the winter through summer on a terminal, from the flowering branches, racemose, occuring only once, erect, distichous, flexuous .4” [1 cm] long, 2 to 4 flowered inflorescence with shorter than the ovary, acute floral bracts and carrying purple flowers.

This species is distinguished by the purple plant with purple, successive flowers with acuminate sepals that are .36 to .4" [9 to 10 mm] long, the tepals are free, erect and three nerved, the length of the lip is about 2 times the width of the defexed column that forms a 90' angle in respect to the ovary.

"Epidendrum atrorugosum is part of GROUP Ramosum which is characterized by the monopodial, branching stems, the spike-like, distichous inflorescence, and the single callus, and the SUBGROUP Rugosumwhich has a branching habit with few-flowered inflorescence from short, secondary stems, the leaf-sheaths rugose. The species has successive flowers, the sepals about .36 to .4" [9 to 10 mm] long, acute, sepals and petals 3-veined, free, straight, lip about twice as long as broad, column bent at the base forming a nearly 90° angle with the ovary; the plants and flowers are described as dark purple throughout. It is closely related to E. rugosum which has smaller flowers with the sepals .2 to .28" [5 to 7 mm], petals 5-veined at base, the column slowly arching, not forming an angle with the ovary, lip about as long as wide, with flowers whitish, green or sometimes purple. Epidendrum curvisepalum Hágsater & Dressler has the lateral sepals curved outwards, though free to the base, 5-veined petals and .12" [3 mm] long column. Epidendrum suturatum Hágsater & Dressler has the lateral sepals not only falcate, but also connate at the base, a feature clearly visible from behind, and the .16" [4 mm] long column bent at the base and forming an angle with the ovary, and 3-veined petals.


References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; *Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 309 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 drawing/photo fide; Manual de las Plantas de Costa Rica Vol 3 Hammel, Grayum, Herrera and Zamora 2003; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 981 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Orchids of Costa Rica Vol 3 Morales 2009 photo fide;