!Gymnadenia conopsea (Linne) R. Brown 1813

Plant and flowers in situ

Photos by Carl Farmer and The British Plant Identification Website

Another Color Form and flowers in situ

Photo by Arthur Skinner

FragrancePart sunColdTo Cool Mid Spring To EARLY Summer

Common Name The Mosquito Gymnadenia - The Fragrant Orchid - In China Shou Shen

Flower Size 3/8" [1 cm]

A small to medium sized, cold growing terrestrial orchid found in Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland, Spain, the Baleares, Portugal, France, Italy, Sicily, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Siberia, Iran, Turkey, China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan in calcareous soil in grasslands at altitudes up to 2800 meters with 3 to 7 linear, or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, green leaves that blooms in the mid spring through mid summer on a cylindrical, densely many flowered, bracteate, 2 to 3" [5 to 7.5 cm] long, racemose inflorescence carrying sweetly scented flowers.

This species is used as an astringent.

Synonyms Gymnadenia alpina (Turcz. ex Rchb.f.) Czerep. 1981; Gymnadenia anisoloba Peterm. 1849; Gymnadenia comigera Rchb. 1830; Gymnadenia conopsea f. albiflora Y.N.Lee 2002; Gymnadenia conopsea raçe alpina (Turcz. ex Rchb.f.) Rouy 1912; Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. serotina (Schönh.) Dworschak 2003; Gymnadenia conopsea var. alpina Turcz. ex Rchb.f. 1851; Gymnadenia conopsea var. serotina Schönh. 1850; Gymnadenia gracillima Schur 1871; Gymnadenia ibukiensis Makino 1912; Gymnadenia orchidis var. pantlingii Renz 2001; Gymnadenia ornithis L.C. Rich. 1818; Gymnadenia psuedoconopsea [Gren.] Rouy. 1912; Gymnadenia pyrenaica Giraudias 1882; Gymnadenia sibirica Turcz. ex Lindl. 1835; Gymnadenia splendida Dworschak 2002; Gymnadenia splendida subsp. odorata Dworschak 2002; Gymnadenia transsilvanica Schur 1866; Gymnadenia vernalis Dworschak 2002; Gymnadenia wahlenbergii Afzel. ex Rchb.f. 1851; Habenaria conopsea (L.) Benth. 1880; Habenaria conopsea Franc. 1881; Habenaria gymnadenia Druce 1897; Orchis conopea Gras 1862; Orchis conopea var. albiflora Tinant 1836; Orchis conopea var. major Tinant 1836; *Orchis conopsea Linne 1753; Orchis cornopica Mill. 1768; Orchis ornithis Jacq. 1774; Orchis peloria Foucault ex Poir. 1816; Orchis pseudoconopea Gren. 1869; Orchis pseudo-conopsea Gren. 1865; Orchis pseudoconopsea P.E.Parm. 1894; Orchis setacea Gilib. 1792; Orchis suaveolens Salisb. 1796; Satyrium conopseum (L.) Wahlenb. 1826

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as G conopea; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 drawing good; AOS Bulletin Vol 28 No 4 1959 as Habenaria conopsea; AOS Bulletin Vol 33 No 2 1964 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 38 No 9 1969 photo fide; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 4 193 to 256 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1973 drawing column only; AOS Bulletin Vol 44 #9 1975; The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada Luer 1975 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 6 1978 photo; AOS Bulletin Vol 52 No 5 1983 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 8 1985 photo fide; The Manual Of Cultivated Orchid Species Bechtel, Cribb & Launert 1992 photo fide; The Wild Orchids of China Tsi, Chen & Mori 1997; Native Orchids of China in Colour Singchi, Zhanhuo and Yibo 1999 photo fide; Rudolf Schlechter Die Orchideen Band 1C lieferung 40 pg 2492 - 2564 Brieger 2000 as G alpina; Genera Orchidacearum Vol 2 Part One Pridgeon, Cribb, Chase and Rasmussen 2001 drawing good; Orchids of Bhutan Pearce & Cribb 2002 as G orchidis var pantlingii; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East Delforge 2005; Native Orchids of Shaanxi - Shaanxi Science & Technology Press 2007 photo fide; Orchids of Huanglong Perner, Tang Si-Yuan 2007 photos fide; A Field Guide to the Orchids of China Singchi, Zhongjian, Yibo, Xiaohua and Zhanhuo 2009 photo ok; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2009; Flora of China Vol 25 Zhengyi, Raven & Deyuan 2010 drawing fide; The Wild Orchids in Yunnan Xu Xiang Ye & Liu 2010 photos fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 86 #5 2017 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 86 #12 2017 drawing fide; Orchid Digest Vol 83 #2 2019 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 84 #1 2020 photo fide; The Orchid Review Vol 1278 No 1330 June 2020 photo fide; Atlas of Native Orchids of China Vol 1 Jin Xiaohua, Li Jianwu and Ye Deping 2019 photo fide;