Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach 2009

Photo by Jim Fowler and his P-Base Orchid North American Orchid Website

Another Plant

Photo by Zachary Bradford


Common Name The Two Leaved Neottia - In USA - Southern Twayblade

Flower Size to about 1/2" [to about 1.25 cm]

Found in the eastern and southern US and eastern Canada in low moist woods, bogs and swamps and farther south in it's range in wet woods in deep shade as a small sized, cold growing terrestrial species with an erect, slender, purplish green stem carrying 2 opposite, green, smooth, sessile, ovate leaves held at mid stem that blooms in the late winter to the south and mid-summer in it's northern range on an erect, to 4 1/2" [11.25 cm] long, lax, 5 to 25 flowered inflorescence with greenish shorter tha the ovary floral bracts and carrying minute, greenish purple flowers.

This species entire vegetative span to maturity is short, generally less than a month.

Synonyms Bifolium australe [Lindley] Niewland 1913; Calanthe australis Aiton ex Loudon 1850; Diphryllum australe [Lindl.] Kuntze 1891; Diphryllum bifolium Raf. 1808; Gyrostachys australis var. flexuosa (Sm.) Blume 1859; Listera australis Lindl. 1840; Listera australis f. trifolia P.M.Br. 1995; Neottia australis (Lindl.) Rchb. f. 1863; Neottia australis (Lindl.) Szlach. 1995; Neottia flexuosa Sm 1813; Ophrys australis [Lindley] House 1905; Spiranthes australis (Rchb. f.) Lindl. 1825; Spiranthes flexuosa (Sm.) Lindl. 1824

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; The Native Orchids of Florida Luer 1972 as Listera Australis Drawing/photo fide; The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada Luer 1975 as Listera australis drawing/photos fide; Schlechteriana Vol 4 No 4 1993; AOS Bulletin Vol 70 #12 2001 as Listera australis fma scotii; AOS Bulletin Vol 70 #12 2001 as Listera fma viridis; AOS Bulletin Vol 89 #11 2020 photo fide;