!Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall. 1827

Photo by Bill Temple


Photo by Th. Pain and the Orchids of France and Europe


Common Name The Spiraled Spiranthes

Flower Size 1/4" [7mm]

Found in Ireland, Great Britain, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, France, Balaeric Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czechloslavakia, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Iran, and the western Himalayas in grasslands and dunes, sometimes marshes and open pinewoods at elevations up to 1400 meters as a miniature sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial orchid with clustered tuberous roots giving rise to ovate, acute, glossy dark green leaves held in a rosette that appear after the plant has flowered on an erect, 12" [30 cm] long, terminal, pubescent, many flowered, spicate inflorescence that the fragrant flowers twist around, occuring in the late summer and early fall and likes a limestone based media or soil. This species and Spiranthes sinensis are considered to be synomonous so look at both to see the total synonymry.

Synonyms Aristotelea spiralis Lour. 1790; Epipactis spiralis Crantz 1769; Gyrostachys autumnalis (Rich.) Dumort 1827; Gyrostachys spiralis (L.) Kuntze 1891; Ibidium spirale (L.) Salisb. 1812; Neottia autumnalis (Balb.) Pers. 1807; Neottia spiralis Sw 1805; Ophrys autumnalis Balb. 1801; Ophrys spiralis Linne 1753; Serapias spiralis (L.) Scop. 1772; Spiranthes autumnalis [Balb.]L.C.M. Richard 1817; Spiranthes autumnalis f. bracteata E.G.Camus 1908; Spiranthes autumnalis f. oycoviensis Zapal. 1906; Spiranthes autumnalis f. parviflora So 1928; Spiranthes autumnalis var. major Rouy 1912; Spiranthes autumnalis var. parviflora Schur 1866; Spiranthes glauca Raf. 1837; Tussaca autumnalis (Balb.) Desv. 1818

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as S autumnalis; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as S autumnalis drawing ok; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 photo ok; AOS Bulletin Vol 50 No 10 1981 Photo fide; Orchids of Kumaun Himalayas Pangtey, Samant and Rawat 1991; Rudolf Schlechter Die Orchideen Band 1C lieferung 40 pg 2492 - 2564 Brieger 2000; Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle east Delforge 2005; The Orchids of India A Glimpse Misra 2007; AOS Bulletin Vol 78 #3 2009 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 75 #2 2011 Photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 84 #3 2015 drawing fide; LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 750. Jeewan Singh Jalal & J. Jayanthi 2015 excluded taxa;