Pleurothallis quadrifida [La Llave & Lex] Lindley 1842 SUBGENUS Effusae Luer 2000

Photo by © Lourens Grobler

Plant and Flower

Flower Closeup

Photos by Jay Pfahl

Inflorescence and Plant

Photo by David Koenst

Plant and Flowers in situ Costa Rica

Photo by Wilfried Löderbusch

TYPE Drawing

TYPE Drawing by Ames

Drawing

Drawing by Carl Luer

MOSTLY and

Common Name The Four-Fold Slitted Pleurothallis

Flower Size .28 to .36" to 1/2" [7 to 9 mm]

Found in the Jamaica, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Venezuela at altitudes up to 1800 meters in wet, exposed locations often in scrub forest as a small to just medium sized, hot to cool growing, caespitose epiphyte or occasional lithophyte with erect, terete, ramicauls carrying a single, apical, coriaceous, linear to oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, retuse and obtuse apically, gradually narrowing below into the conduplicate, petiolate base leaf that blooms mostly in the summer on an apical, subtended by a compressed sheath,erect, simple, to 15" [38 cm] long, simultaneously opening, many flowered inflorescence with an oblique, acute longer than the pedicel floral bract and carrying sweetly scented flowers held all to one side of the inflorescence which extends well above the leaves.

"Characterized by the oblong, glaucous leaves, a stout ramicaul about as long and a lax raceme of relatively large, yellow flowers. The lateral sepals are connate into a synsepal a little larger than the dorsal sepal. The petals are large and obtuse. The lip is large and pandurate witha broadly rounded apex and a short, unguiculate base.

Grow in a pot or mounted with semi-shade and give cool to hot temperatures with year round moisture and good air movement.

Synonyms Anathallis racemiflora (Lindl. ex Lodd) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 2001; *Dendrobium quadrifidum La Llave & Lex. 1825; Humboldtia incompta (Rchb. f.) Kuntze ?; Humboldtia longissima (Lindl.) Kuntze ?; Humboldtia nicaraguensis (Rchb. f.) Kuntze ?; Humboldtia quadrifida (Lex.) Kuntze; Humboltia incompta (Rchb. f.) Kuntze 1891; Humboltia longissima (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Humboltia nicaraguensis (Liebm.) Kuntze 1891; Humboltia quadrifida (Lex.) Kuntze 1891; Humboltia racemiflora (Lindl. ex Lodd.) Kuntze 1891; Lalexia quadrifida (Lex.) Luer 2011; Loddigesia quadrifida (La Llave & Lex.) Luer, 2006; Physosiphon nicaraguensis Liebm. 1853; Pleurothallis ghiesbreghtiana A. Rich. & Galeotti 1845; Pleurothallis ghiesbreghtiana var. cleistogama L.O.Williams 1951; Pleurothallis incompta Rchb. f. 1854; Pleurothallis longissima Lindl. 1859; Pleurothallis lyroglossa Schltr. 1910; Pleurothallis nicaraguensis (Liebm.) Rchb. f. 1861; Pleurothallis niederleinii Schltr. 1918; Pleurothallis racemiflora Lindl. ex G.Lodd. 1825; Pleurothallis tricostata Cogn. 1912; Specklinia quadrifida (Lex.) Luer 2004; Stelis nicaraguensis (Liebm.) Solano & Soto Arenas 2002 publ. 2003; Stelis quadrifida (Lex.) Solano & Soto Arenas 2002 publ. 2003; Stelis racemiflora Lodd. ex W.Baxter 1839; Stelis racemiflora (Pridgeon & M.W.Chase) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 2001;

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Lankester's Epidendra Website CR ;

Prodr. 125. Sw. 1788 as Epidendrum racemiflorum;

Nov. Veg. Descr. 2(Orch. Opusc.): 40-41.La LLave & Lex. 1825 as Dendrobium quadrifidum;

Bot. Cab. 10: t. 949 G Lodd. 1825 as Pleurothallis racemiflora nom. illeg. drawing fide;

Syst. Veg., ed. 16. 3: 730 Spreng. 1826 as Gomesa stricta;

Hort. Brit., Suppl. 3: 643 Lodd ex W H Baxter 1839 as Stelis racemiflora;

Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 330 Bertero ex Steud. 1841 as Physanthera callistachys pro syn.;

Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 463 Steud. 1841

* Edwards's Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 70. Lindley 1842;

Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 3: 16 A Rich & glaleiotti 1845 as P ghiesbreghtiana

Index Seminum (C, Hauniensi) 1853: 20 Liebm. 1853 as Physosiphon nicaraguensis; ;

Bonplandia 2:24 Rchb.f 1854 as P incompta;

Fol. Orchid. 9: 31 Lindley 1859 as Pleurothallis longissima;

Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 171 Rchb.f 1861 Pleurothallis nicaraguensis;

Xenia Orchidaceae vol 2:113 Rchb.f 1865 as P incompta;

Xenia Orchidaceae vol 2:114 Rchb.f 1865 as P longissima;

Refugium Botanicum Reichenbach Vol 2:tab 141 1872 as P longissima

Refugium Botanicum Reichenbach Vol 2:tab 141 1872 as P longissima drawing fide;

Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 668. Kuntze 1891 as Humboldtia quadrifida;

Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 667. Kuntze 1891 as Humboldtia incompta;

Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 668. Kuntze 1891 as Humboldtia longissima;

Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 668. Kuntze 1891 as Humboldtia nicaraguensis;

Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 668. Kuntze 1891 as Humboltia racemiflora;

Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8(191-195): 566. Schltr. 1910 as P lyroglossa;

Die Orchideen Schlechter 178 1915 as P incompta;

Die Orchideen Schlechter 179 1915 as P racemiflora;

Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 396 Schlechter 1918 as Pleurothallis niederleinii;

Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 19: 190. Costa Rica Schlechter 1923 as P incompta;

Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI: 397 Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as P longissima;

Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI:398 Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as P racemiflora;

Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as P tricostata;

Flora of Jamaica Fawcett & Rendle 1910 as P longissima;

Flora of Jamaica Fawcett & Rendle 1910 as P racemifera not = P oblongifolia;

The Orchids of Panama L.O. Williams & P Allen 1946 as P ghiesbreghtiana;

Ceiba 2: 103 L O Williams 1951 as P ghiesbreghtiana car cleistogama;

Orchids of Guatemala and Belize Ames & Correll 1952 as P ghiesbrectiana;

Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated Vol 2 Dunsterville & Garay 1961 drawing good;

Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as P ghiesbreghtiana;

Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 2 1970 drawing ok;

Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 2 1970 as P racemiflora;

Las Orquedias De El Salvador Vol 2 Hamer 1974 drawing/photo good;

Orchids of Venezuela, An Illustrated Field Guide Vol 3 Dunsterville & Garay 1979 drawing fide;

Miniature Orchids Northen 1980 as P racemifera photos fide;

Las Orquideas de El Salvador Vol 3 Hamer 1981 drawing ok;

Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 1123 Dodson 1984 drawing fide;

Flora Novo-Galaciana Vol 16 Orchidaceae Mc Vaugh 1985 drawing fide;

Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol III Systematics of Pleurothallis Luer 1986 as Pleurothallis racemiflora;

An Introdution to the Orchids of Mexico Wiard 1987 as Pleurothallis racemifera photo fide;

Orchids Travel By Air A Pictoral Safari Mulder, Mulder-Roelfsema and Schuiteman 1990 as Pleurothallis racemifera photo fide;

The Manual Of Cultivated Orchid Species Bechtel, Cribb & Launert 1992 photo fide;

Orchids of Jamaica Gloudon & Tobisch 1995 as P racemifera photo fide;

An Orchid Flora Of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Ackerman 1995 as P racemiflora;

AOS Bulletin Vol 65 No 7 1996;

Guatemala Y Sus Orquideas Behar & Tinschert 1998 photo fide;

Orchidaceae Antillanae Nir 2000;

Orchidaceae Antillanae Nir 2000 as P tricostata;

Orchids of Venezuela [An illustrated field guide] Vol. 3 Ramiro and Carnevali 2000 as P racemiflora drawing fide;

Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol XX Systematics of Jostia, Andinia, Barbosella, Barbrodia & Pleurothallis subgen Antilla, Effusia and Restrepioidia Luer 2000 as P racemiflora

Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol XX Systematics of Jostia, Andinia, Barbosella, Barbrodia & Pleurothallis subgen Antilla, Effusia and Restrepioidia Luer 2000as P racemiflora drawing fide;

Orchidaceae Antillanae Nir 2000 as P racemifera;

Lindleyana Vol 16 No 4:250 Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 2001 as Anathallis racemiflora;

Lindleyana Vol 16 No 4:266 Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 2001 as Stelis racemiflora;

Icones Orchidacearum 5-6: xi Solano & Soto Arenas 2002 publ. 2003 as Stelis nicaraguensis;

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica Vol 3 Hammel, Grayum, Herrera and Zamora 2003;

Systematics and evolution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in the Greater Antilles Hagen Stenzel 2004 as P ghiesbreghtiana drawing fide;

Systematics and evolution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in the Greater Antilles Hagen Stenzel 2004 drawing fide;

Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol XXVI Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera and Three Allied subgenera, A Second Century of new Species of Stelis of Ecuador, Epibator, Ophidion and Zootrophion Luer 2004 as Specklinia quadrifida;

The Orchids of Cuba Llamacho & Larramendi 2005 as Specklinia quadrifida photo fide;

Icones Pleurothallidinarum Vol XXVIII A Reconsideration of masdevallia Systematics of Specklinia Luer 2006 as Loddigesia quadrifida;

Orchids of Costa Rica Vol 5 Morales 2009 photo fide;

Mille et Une Mini Orchideees Roguenant 2009 as Stelis quadrifida photo fide;

Algunas Orquideas De Mexico Suarez 2012 photo fide;

Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles Ackerman 2014 drawing fide;

Of Men and Orchids Part 1 Jenny 2015 as P gheisbreghtiana photo fide;

Diversity of Pleurothallidinae in Guatemala: An Endangered Orchid Subtribe with High Economic and Horticultural Potentials Edgar Mo Mo, Cetzal, Basu and Vega 2017 as Stelis quadrifida photo fide;

Orchid Genera and Species in Guatemala Archila, Szlachchetko, Chiron, Lipinska, Mystkowska and Bertolini 2018 as Lelexia ghiesbreghtiana;

Orchid Genera and Species in Guatemala Archila, Szlachchetko, Chiron, Lipinska, Mystkowska and Bertolini 2018 as Lalexia quadrifida photo fide;

Vanishing Beauty, Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 2 Lacaena to Pteroglossa Pupulin 2020 photo fide

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