Group Secundum Characterized by the caespitose habit, the numerous coriaceous leaves, the generally elongate peduncle to pluriracemose inflorescence with brightly colored flowers generally pollinated by hummingbirds, with the caudicles of the pollinarium granulose, and the tetrads appearing like a loose stack of roof tiles. There are two subgroups Calanthum and Elongatum

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Calanthum

Characterized as a subgroup by the bicallose with a central, narrow, long, wavy keel, the column is apically high and the anther is generally decumbent.

  1. Epidendrum apatotylosum Hágsater 2007 Costa Rica

  2. Epidendrum baumannianum Schltr. 1920 Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia and Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum calanthum Rchb. f. & Warsz. 1854 Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador

  4. Epidendrum flexuosum G. Mey. 1818

  5. Epidendrum haematanthum Schltr. 1921 - Peru

  6. Epidendrum hawkesii A.H.Heller 1966 Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

  7. Epidendrum ibaguense H.B.K. 1816 Trinidad & Tobago, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and northern Brazil

  8. Epidendrum mimopsis Hágsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  9. Epidendrum odontopetalum Hágsater 2008 Bolivia

  10. Epidendrum persimile Schltr. 1920 Colombia

  11. Epidendrum radicans Pavon ex Lindley 1831 Puerto Rico, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela and Colombia

  12. Epidendrum revertianum (Stehlé) Hágsater 1993 Leewards, the Windwards and Guyana

  13. Epidendrum rubroticum Hágsater 1993 Guadeloupe [potentially extinct], Dominica, Martinique St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenada

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Elongatum

Characterized by the complicated, tuberculose callus on the lip, with a low column, with an incumbent anther.

  1. Epidendrum acroscopeum Hágsater & Dodson 2006 Ecuador

  2. Epidendrum arachnoglossum Rchb.f. ex André 1882 Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum aromoense Cornejo & Hágsater 2014 Ecuador

  4. Epidendrum aura-usecheae Hágsater, C.Rincón-Useche et O.Pérez 2013 Colombia

  5. Epidendrum brachycorymbosum Hagsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  6. Epidendrum catillus Rchb. f. & Warsz. 1854 Colombia

  7. Epidendrum coroicoense Schltr. 1929 Peru & Bolivia

  8. Epidendrum corymbosum Ruiz & Pav 1798 Peru

  9. Epidendrum elongatum Jacq. 1789

  10. Epidendrum igneum Hágsater 2004 Colombia

  11. Epidendrum imperator Hágsater. 2004 Colombia

  12. Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f. 1856

  13. Epidendrum ptochicum Hágsater 2006 Colombia, Ecuador and Peru

  14. Epidendrum quinquecallosum Schltr. 1920 Colombia

  15. Epidendrum quitensium Rchb. f. 1862

  16. Epidendrum reflexilobum Schweinf. 1943 Peru

  17. Epidendrum susannae Hágsater, O.Pérez & E.Parra 2013 Colombia

  18. Epidendrum tulcanense Hágsater & Dodson 2013 Colombia

  19. Epidendrum vinosum Schltr. 1921 Peru

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Secundum [Calanthum]

  1. Epidendrum ackermanii Hágsater 2004 Puerto Rico

  2. Epidendrum azulense D.E.Benn. & Christenson 1998 Peru

  3. Epidendrum caquetanum Schltr. 1924 Colombia

  4. Epidendrum cochlidium Lindl. 1840 Ecuador and Peru

  5. Epidendrum denticulatum Barb. Rodr. 1881 Brazil

  6. Epidendrum franckei Hágsater 2004 Peru

  7. Epidendrum gracilicaule Rchb.f. & Wars 1854

  8. Epidendrum lacerum Lindley 1838 Eastern Cuba

  9. Epidendrum laurelense Hágsater & Dodson 2001 Ecuador

  10. Epidendrum macrocarpum [syn E schomburgkia] Rich.1792 Trinidad & Tobago, Surinam, French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil

  11. Epidendrum macrocyphum Kraenzl. 1905 Peru

  12. Epidendrum melinanthum Schltr. 1920 Colombia

  13. Epidendrum mimeticum Carnevali & G.A.Romero in G.A.Romero & G.Carnevali 2000 Venezuela

  14. Epidendrum mimopsis Hagsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  15. Epidendrum portokalium Hágsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  16. Epidendrum ptochicum Hágsater 2006 Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

  17. Epidendrum rauhii Hágsater 2004 Peru

  18. Epidendrum schistochilum Schltr. 1924 Colombia Ecuador

  19. Epidendrum schomburgkii Lindley 1838 Trinidad & Tobago, French Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil

  20. Epidendrum secundum Jacq. 1760 Puerto Rico, The Leewards, the Windwards, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador?, Peru?, Bolivia and Brazil?

  21. Epidendrum splendens Schlechter 1921 Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia

  22. Epidendrum sterrophyllum Schltr. 1920 Colombia

  23. Epidendrum thermophilum Hágsater & Dodson 1993 Ecuador

  24. Epidendrum tricarinatum Rolfe 1917 Peru

  25. Epidendrum vinosum Schltr. 1921 Ecuador Peru

  26. Epidendrum wrightii Lindl. 1858 Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba

  27. Epidendrum xanthinum Lindl. 1844 Colombia Brazil

  28. Epidendrum xytriophorum Rchb.f. & Warsz. 1854

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 430 Dodson 1982; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 063 Dodson & Bennett 1989; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 0671 Dodson & Bennett 1989; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 452 Bennett & Christenson 1998; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 647 Bennett & Christenson 2001; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 649 Bennett & Christenson 2001; Native Ecuadorian Orchids Vol 2 Dodson 2001; Icones Orchidacearum 7 Plate 701 Hagsater and Sanchez 2004 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1104 Hagsater and Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1105 Hagsater and Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1125 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1130 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1150 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1171 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section;