Group Secundum Characterized by the caespitose habit, the numerous coriaceous leaves, the generally elongate peduncle to pluriracemose inflorescence with brightly colored flowers generally pollinated by hummingbirds, with the caudicles of the pollinarium granulose, and the tetrads appearing like a loose stack of roof tiles. There are two subgroups Calanthum and Elongatum

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Calanthum

Charactereized as a subgroup by the bicallose with a central, narrow, long, wavy keel, the column is apically high and the anther is generally decumbent.

  1. Epidendrum apatotylosum Hágsater 2007 Costa Rica

  2. Epidendrum baumannianum Schltr. 1920 Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia and Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum calanthum Rchb. f. & Warsz. 1854 Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador

  4. Epidendrum flexuosum G. Mey. 1818

  5. Epidendrum haematanthum Schltr. 1921 - Peru

  6. Epidendrum hawkesii A.H.Heller 1966 Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

  7. Epidendrum ibaguense H.B.K. 1816 Trinidad & Tobago, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and northern Brazil

  8. Epidendrum imantophyllum Lindl. 1831 Mexico, Costa Rica, Panam, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Trinidad & Tobago, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

  9. Epidendrum odontopetalum Hagsater 2008 Bolivia

  10. Epidendrum radicans Pavon ex Lindley 1831 Puerto Rico, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela and Colombia

  11. Epidendrum revertianum (Stehlé) Hágsater 1993 Leewards, the Windwards and Guyana

  12. Epidendrum rubroticum Hágsater 1993 Guadeloupe [potentially extinct], Dominica, Martinique St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenada

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Elongatum

Characterized by the complicated, tuberculose callus on the lip, with a low column, with an incumbent anther.

  1. Epidendrum acroscopeum Hágsater & Dodson 2006 Ecuador

  2. Epidendrum arachnoglossum Rchb.f. ex André 1882 Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum aura-usecheae Hágsater, C.Rincón-Useche et O.Pérez 2013 Colombia

  4. Epidendrum brachycorymbosum Hagsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  5. Epidendrum corymbosum Ruiz & Pav 1798 Peru

  6. Epidendrum elongatum Jacq. 1789

  7. Epidendrum igneum Hágsater 2004 Colombia

  8. Epidendrum imperator Hágsater. 2004 Colombia

  9. Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f. 1856

  10. Epidendrum quitensium Rchb. f. 1862

GROUP Secundum SUBGROUP Secundum [Calanthum]

  1. Epidendrum ackermanii Hágsater 2004 Puerto Rico

  2. Epidendrum azulense D.E.Benn. & Christenson 1998 Peru

  3. Epidendrum caquetanum Schltr. 1924 Colombia

  4. Epidendrum catillus Rchb. f. & Warsz. 1854 Colombia

  5. Epidendrum cochlidium Lindl. 1840 Ecuador and Peru

  6. Epidendrum denticulatum Barb. Rodr. 1881 Brazil

  7. Epidendrum franckei Hágsater 2004 Peru

  8. Epidendrum gracilicaule Rchb.f. & Wars 1854

  9. Epidendrum lacerum Lindley 1838 Eastern Cuba

  10. Epidendrum laurelense Hagsater & Dodson 2001 Ecuador

  11. Epidendrum macrocarpum [syn E schomburgkia] Rich.1792 Trinidad & Tobago, Surinam, French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil

  12. Epidendrum macrocyphum Kraenzl. 1905 Peru

  13. Epidendrum melinanthum Schltr. 1920 Colombia

  14. Epidendrum mimeticum Carnevali & G.A.Romero in G.A.Romero & G.Carnevali 2000 Venezuela

  15. Epidendrum mimopsis Hagsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  16. Epidendrum portokalium Hágsater & Dodson 2004 Ecuador

  17. Epidendrum ptochicum Hágsater 2006 Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

  18. Epidendrum rauhii Hagsater 2004 Peru

  19. Epidendrum reflexilobum Schweinf. 1943 Peru

  20. Epidendrum schistochilum Schltr. 1924 Colombia Ecuador

  21. Epidendrum schomburgkii Lindley 1838

  22. Epidendrum secundum Jacq. 1760 Puerto Rico, The Leewards, the Windwards, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador?, Peru?, Bolivia and Brazil?

  23. Epidendrum thermophilum Hágsater & Dodson 1993 Ecuador

  24. Epidendrum tricarinatum Rolfe 1917 Peru

  25. Epidendrum vinosum Schltr. 1921 Ecuador Peru

  26. Epidendrum wrightii Lindl. 1858 Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 430 Dodson 1982; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 063 Dodson & Bennett 1989; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 0671 Dodson & Bennett 1989; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 452 Bennett & Christenson 1998; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 647 Bennett & Christenson 2001; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 649 Bennett & Christenson 2001; Native Ecuadorian Orchids Vol 2 Dodson 2001; Icones Orchidacearum 7 Plate 701 Hagsater and Sanchez 2004 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1104 Hagsater and Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1105 Hagsater and Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1125 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1130 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1150 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1171 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 see recognition section;