Palm

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Ramosum

Characterized by the monopodial, branching stems the spike-like, distichous inflorescence, and the single callus,

  1. Epidendrum calyptrandrium Hágsater, Medina Tr. & Huamantupa 2018 Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

  2. Epidendrum glumarum Hamer & Garay 1985 Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

  3. Epidendrum mixtoides Hágsater & Dodson 1993 Ecuador

  4. Epidendrum mixtum Schltr. 1912 Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

  5. Epidendrum pseudoramosum Schltr. 1912 Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Venezuela

  6. Epidendrum ramosum Jacq. 1760 Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Leewards, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago, Windwards, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Flexicaule

Charactereized by the stragling plant habit, where the main stem is not very evident, and the sepals have a dorsal keel which is generally prominent.

  1. Epidendrum antillanum Ackerman & Hágsater 1992Dominican Republic, Puerto Rica, Leewards and Windwards

  2. Epidendrum calagrense Hágsater & Dodson 2001Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum carpophorum Barb.Rodr. 1882 Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and Brazil

  4. Epidendrum dosbocasense Hágsater 1992 Panama

  5. Epidendrum flexicaule Schltr. 1918 Costa Rica Ecuador

  6. Epidendrum insulanum Schltr.1918 Isla de Coco off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  7. Epidendrum paradisicola Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  8. Epidendrum rodriguesii Cogn. 1898 Brazil

  9. Epidendrum stevensii Hágsater 1992 Costa Rica

  10. Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb. f. 1858 Florida, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leewards Trinidad & Tobago, Windwards, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana and Venzuela

  11. Epidendrum strobiloides Garay & Dunst. 1966 Surinam, French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela and Ecuador

  12. Epidendrum urichianum Carnevali, Foldats & Ramirez 1992 Guyana Venezuela

  13. Epidendrum veraguasense Hágsater 1992 Panama

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Isomerum

Characterized by the monopodial, branching stems the spike-like, distichous inflorescence, and the single callus.

  1. Epidendrum guanacastense Ames & C.Schweinf. 1930 Costa Rica and Panama

  2. Epidendrum isomerum Schltr. 1906 Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Guyana and Ecuador

  3. Epidendrum zunigae Hágsater, Karremans & Bogarín 2008 Costa Rica

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Mirabile

Characterized by the pendent plants, successive stems produced from a middle internode of the previous stem, without any evident main stem; the flowers white to purple and mostly very fragrant.

  1. Epidendrum acunae Dressler 1959;Florida [extinct], Cuba, Mexico [Vera Cruz & Chiapas], Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

  2. Epidendrum blancheanum 1922 Florida, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

  3. Epidendrum cocoense Hágsater 1999 Isla de Coco on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  4. Epidendrum haberi Hágsater & L.Sánchez 2006 Costa Rica

  5. Epidendrum jimenezii Hágsater 1999 Isla de Coco on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  6. Epidendrum mirabile Ames & C. Schweinf. 1930 Costa Rica

  7. Epidendrum mutisii Hágsater 1999 Colombia

  8. Epidendrum pollardii Hágsater 1993 Mexico

  9. Epidendrum rafael-lucasii Hágsater 1993 Costa Rica and Panama

  10. Epidendrum santaclarense Ames 1923 Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

  11. Epidendrum singuliflorum Schltr. 1912 Mexico & Guatemala

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Paranense

Characterized by the pendent branching plant with coriaceous leaves, distichous inflorescense, oblong to oblong-lanceolate leaves.

  1. Epidendrum bahorucense Hágsater & L.Cerv. 2001 Dominican Republic

  2. Epidendrum inhibitioisum Karremans & Mel.Fernández 2013 Costa Rica

  3. Epidendrum mora-retanae Hágsater 1993 Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

  4. Epidendrum morrisii Hágsater & L.Cerv. 2001 Jamaica

  5. Epidendrum mutisii Hágsater 1999 Colombia

  6. Epidendrum paranaense Barb.Rodr. 1881 Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Brazil

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Platystigma

Characterized by the monopodial, erect plants with a clear primary stem, branching occurs from the axil of the leaves, producing short, few, small leaved branches, and these produce successive, short branches from a subapical internode, thus an old plant has numerous branches, these progressively made of fewer elements, and often lacking the juvenile, long leaves, at this stage the plant attains full flowering and often dies.

  1. Epidendrum brachyclinium Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  2. Epidendrum bracteostigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999Costa Rica

  3. Epidendrum campbellstigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  4. Epidendrum gibbosum L.O.Williams 1941 Costa Rica & Panama

  5. Epidendrum jefestigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Panama

  6. Epidendrum paraguastigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  7. Epidendrum penneystigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  8. Epidendrum platyphyllostigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Panama

  9. Epidendrum platystigma Rchb.f. 1866 Costa Rica subgroup type

  10. Epidendrum ramonianum Schltr. 1923 Costa Rica

  11. Epidendrum ramosissimum Ames & C.Schweinf. 1925 Costa Rica

  12. Epidendrum villegastigma Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Repens

Characterized by the monopodial, branching stems, the spike-like, distichous inflorescence, and the single callus.

  1. Epidendrum brachyrepens Hágsater 1999 Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama

  2. Epidendrum confertum Ames & C.Schweinf. 1930 Costa Rica

  3. Epidendrum cornanthera F.Lehm. & Kraenzl. 1899 Panama, Colombia, Ecuador

  4. Epidendrum cornurepens Hágsater, H.Ferrer & L.Sánchez 2015 Venezuela and Brazil

  5. Epidendrum luckei I.Bock 1984 Colombia, Ecuador

  6. Epidendrum repens Cogn. 1909 Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leewards, southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Niacaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia -Sub group type

  7. Epidendrum saximontanum Pabst 1967 Brazil

  8. Epidendrum swartzii (Rchb.f. ex Griseb.) Hágsater 2007 Jamaica and the Dominican Republic

  9. Epidendrum zanoni Dod 1993 Dominican Republic

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Rugosum

Characterized by the monopodial, branching stems, the spike-like, distichous inflorescence, and the single callus, and the SUBGROUP Rugosum which has a branching habit with few-flowered inflorescence from short, secondary stems, the leaf-sheaths rugose.

  1. Epidendrum anoglossoides Ames & C.Schweinf. 1930Costa Rica

  2. Epidendrum atrorugosum Hágsater 1999 Costa Rica

  3. Epidendrum chirripoense Hágsater 1993 Costa Rica

  4. Epidendrum cordiforme C.Schweinf. 1940 Costa Rica Panama

  5. Epidendrum curvisepalum Hágsater & Dressler 1993 Panama

  6. Epidendrum elcimeyae Hágsater & García-Cruz 1999 Costa Rica

  7. Epidendrum erythrostigma Hágsater 1999 Costa Rica Panama

  8. Epidendrum exiguum Ames & C.Schweinf. 1930 Costa Rica Panama

  9. Epidendrum hornitense Hágsater & L.Sánchez 2006 Panama

  10. Epidendrum jorge-warneri Karremans & Hágsater 2014 Costa Rica

  11. Epidendrum lancilabium Schltr. 1923Costa Rica Panama

  12. Epidendrum microcardium Schltr.1923 Costa Rica Panama

  13. Epidendrum microdendron Rchb.f. 1866 Costa Rica Panama

  14. Epidendrum mixtoides Hágsater & Dodson 1993 Ecuador

  15. Epidendrum monophlebium Hágsater 1999 Costa Rica

  16. Epidendrum nutantirhachis Ames & C.Schweinf. 1930 Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador

  17. Epidendrum orthodontum Hágsater & L.Sánchez 1999 Costa Rica Panama

  18. Epidendrum oxyglossum Schltr. 1923 Costa Rica

  19. Epidendrum platystomoides Hágsater & L.Sánchez 2006 Costa Rica

  20. Epidendrum platystomum Hágsater & L.Sánchez 2006 Panama

  21. Epidendrum rugosum Ames 1923 Costa Rica

  22. Epidendrum sanchoi Ames 1923Costa Rica Panama

  23. Epidendrum suturatum Hágsater & Dressler 1993 Panama

  24. Epidendrum trachythece Schltr. 1907 Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Panama

GROUP Ramosum SUBGROUP Sculptum

  1. Epidendrum sculptum Rchb.f. 1854 Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazi, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and Fr Guiana

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as E ramosum var lanceolatum; Venezuelan Orchids Vol 4 Dunsterville & Garay 1966, Flora De Venezuela, Volumen XV Parte 3 Foldats 1970; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 76 Dodson 1980; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 83 Dodson 1980; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 93 Dodson 1980; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 720 Hamer 1982 see recognition section; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 722 Hamer 1982 see recognition section; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 730 Hamer 1982 see observations; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 741 Hamer 1982 see observations;Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 810 Hamer 1983 see observations; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 1219 Hamer 1985 see observations; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 1324 Atwood 1989 see observations; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 1326 Atwood 1989 see observations; Icones Orchidacearum 1 Plate 026 Hagsater & Salazar 1990 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 1 Plate 032 Hagsater & Salazar 1990 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 1 Plate 036 Hagsater & Salazar 1990 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 1 Plate 042 Hagsater & Salazar 1990 see recognition section; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 1523 Atwood 1993 see notes; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum Plate 1523 Atwood 1993; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 140 Hagsater 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 159 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 160 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 176 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 179 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 190 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Orchids of the High Mountain Atlantic Rainforest in SE Brazil Warren & Miller 1994; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 301 Hagsater 1999 see recogntion section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 309 Hagsater 1999 see recogntion section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 314 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section as E platystigma group; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 315 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 316 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section as E platystigma group; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 313 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section as E platystigma group; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 325 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 329 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 331 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 340 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 341 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 358 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 359 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 361 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 366 Hagsater 1999 as E modestiflorum see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 367 Hagsater 1999 as E platystigma group see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 368 Hagsater 1999 group see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 372 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 397 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 415 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 425 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 462 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 5-6 Plate 580 Hagsater 2002 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 5-6 Plate 581 Hagsater 2002 see recognition section; Orchids of Bolivia Vol 2 Laelinae Vasquez and Ibisch 2004; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 840 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 841 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 872 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 8 Plate 873 Hagsater & Sanchez 2006 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 9 Plate 907 Hagsater & Sanchez 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 919 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 922 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 923 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 942 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 944 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 948 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 951 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 953 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 957 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 966 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 969 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 975 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 977 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 978 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 981 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 9 Plate 994 Hagsater 2007 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1123 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1127 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1142 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1143 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1144 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1169 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1176 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1183 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1188 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1195 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1200 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1327 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1382 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1383 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 See recognition section; ; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1390 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1443 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1515 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1529 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 16[1} Plate 1655 Hagsater & Sanchez 2018 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 16[1} Plate 1660 Hagsater & Sanchez 2018 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 16[2] Plate 1669 Hagsater & Sanchez 2018 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 17(2) Plate 1769 Hagsater & Jimenez 2020 see recognition section

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